AM and FM Transmitters - Electrical Engineering - Lecture Slides, Slides for Electrical Engineering. Alagappa University

Electrical Engineering

Description: This lecture series is from Electrical Engineering courses. A collection of lectures on all the important topics in EE. These slides covers points such as: Am and Fm Transistors, Block Diagram, Transmitter, Basic Blocks of Transmitter, Classification of Radio Transmitters, Transmitted Frequency, Service Involved, Modulation, Continious Wave, Am Transmitter, Low Level Modulation, Fm Transmitters, Methods of Fm Generation
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LECTURE ON AM/FM TRANSMITTER

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Block diagram of communication system

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Information or Message

Transducer Transmitter Communication Channel or

Medium Information

in Electrical form

• It takes the information to be communicated in electrical form and convert it into an electronic signal compatible with the communication medium .

TRANSMITTER

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TRANSMITTER

 In this block diagram of communication system, the upper section is called the transmitting section.

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TRANSMITTER

 The main parts of transmitter are explained as follows :

 Microphone : It converts sounds into electrical signals in wires. It is the opposite of a loudspeaker.

 Modulator : The audio signal is modulated into the radio frequency carrier in this modulator stage.

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TRANSMITTER

 Frequency generator : The frequency generation stage will decide the frequency on which the transmitter will operate.

 RF power amplifier : The power amplification of the radio signal is carried out in the final stage. It makes the signal stronger so that it can be transmitted through the channel over long distances.

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TRANSMITTER

 An antenna is a transducer which converts electrical signals into electromagnetic waves.

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BASIC BLOCKS OF TRANSMITTER

 Modulator

 RF oscillator

 Power amplifier

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BASIC FUNCTIONS OF TRANSMITTER

 Modulation  Carrier generation  Amplification (Power)

 It is an electronic unit which accepts the information signal to be transmitted and converts it into an RF signal capable of being transmitted over long distances .

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BASIC FUNCTIONS OF TRANSMITTER

Every transmitter has three basic functions as follows:

 The transmitter must generate a signal of correct frequency at a desired point in the spectrum.

 Secondly it must provide some form of modulation to modulate the carrier.

 Third it must provide sufficient power amplification in order to carry the modulated signal to a long distance.

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CLASSIFICATION OF RADIO TRANSMITTERS

1. According to the type of modulation used.

2. According to service involved.

3. According to the frequency range involved.

4. According to the power used.

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CLASSIFICATION BASED ON TRANSMITTED FREQUENCY

 Low frequency (LF) transmitters (30 KHZ- 300KHZ)

 Medium frequency (MF) transmitters ( 300 KHZ- 3 MHZ)

 High frequency (HF) transmitters (3 MHZ- 30MHZ)

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CLASSIFICATION BASED ON TRANSMITTED FREQUENCY

 Very high frequency (VHF) transmitters (30MHZ-300 MHZ)

 Ultra high frequency (UHF) transmitters (300 MHZ- 3GHZ)

 Microwave transmitters (>3GHZ)

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CLASSIFICATION BASED ON TYPE OF SERVICE INVOLVED

 Radio broadcast transmitters.

 Radio telephony transmitters.

 Radio telegraph transmitters.

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CLASSIFICATION BASED ON TYPE OF SERVICE INVOLVED

 Television transmitters.

 Radar transmitters.

 Navigational transmitters.

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CLASSIFICATION BASED ON TYPES OF MODULATION

 CW Transmitters

 AM Transmitters

 FM Transmitters

 SSB Transmitters

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CONTINIOUS WAVE (CW) TRANSMITTERS

 The CW Transmitter is the simplest type of transmitter.

 It is a simple crystal oscillator circuit.

 This oscillator generates a carrier signal of the desired frequency.

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CONTINIOUS WAVE (CW) TRANSMITTERS

 Information to be transmitted is expressed in a special form of code using dots and dashes to represent letters of the alphabet and numbers.

 The information transmitted in this way is called as continuous wave (CW) transmission.

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CONTINIOUS WAVE (CW) TRANSMITTERS

 The key is a simple hand operated switch connected in emitter of the transistor.

 By closing the key we can turn on the crystal oscillator on and by opening the key the oscillator is turned off.

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CONTINIOUS WAVE (CW) TRANSMITTERS

 When the key is closed, the oscillator produces a sinusoidal signal at a frequency equal to the crystal frequency, whereas with the key open, the output of oscillator is zero.

 The key is opened and closed in order to produce zero output and dots or dashes.

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CONTINIOUS WAVE (CW) TRANSMITTERS

 Dots correspond to the short duration output whereas a dash corresponds to a long duration output.

 The required messages can be transmitted using different combinations of dots and dashes for different alphabets and letters.

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ADVANTAGES OF CW TRANSMITTER

 Simple to construct

 Compact and portable

 Can be operated on batteries

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DISADVANTAGES

 A skilled operator is required to convert the message to be sent into a coded form of dots and dashes.

 Long distance communication is not possible.

 Voice or picture can not be sent.

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AM TRANSMITTER

 Amplitude modulation technique is used in AM transmitters, here the amplitude of carrier is varied in proportion with the amplitude of the modulating signal, keeping its frequency and phase constant.

 Used in radio & TV broadcasting.

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AM TRANSMITTER

 In AM Transmitter, AM signal is transmitted by a transmitter. The information is contained in its amplitude variation.

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TYPES OF AM TRANSMITTERS

 Low Level modulation transmitters.

 High Level modulation transmitters.

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LOW LEVEL MODULATION TRANSMITTERS

 The generation of AM wave takes place at a low power level.

 The generated AM signal is then amplified using a chain of linear amplifier ( A , AB or B).

Low Level Modulator

Power Amplifier (Linear)

RF Carrier Oscillator

Signal Source (Modulating Signal)

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Class A Buffer amplifier

Modulator Linear Amplifiers STABILISED RF OSCILLATOR

Power Amplifiers

Antenna

Class A AF amplifier

Audio processing & filtering

AF modulating signal

LOW LEVEL MODULATION TRANSMITTERS

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LOW LEVEL MODULATION TRANSMITTERS

 The RF oscillator produces the carrier signal. The RF oscillator is stabilized in order to maintain the frequency deviation within the prescribed limit. The carrier frequency is equal to the transmitter frequency.

 Usually the transmitter operates on assigned frequencies or channels. Crystal provides the best way to obtain the described frequency with good stability.

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LOW LEVEL MODULATION TRANSMITTERS

 We cannot use the LC oscillator because they have low frequency stability.

 The carrier signal from the crystal oscillator is applied to the modulator with a modulating signal. At the output of the modulator we get the AM wave.

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LOW LEVEL MODULATION TRANSMITTERS

 The modulating signal is obtained from a source such as a microphone and applied to a buffer processing unit.

 The buffer is a class A amplifier which isolates the AF source from the rest of high power circuit and amplifies it to an adequate level.

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LOW LEVEL MODULATION TRANSMITTERS

 The amplified modulating signal is applied to the modulator along with the carrier. At the output of the modulator we get the AM wave.

 The AM signal is then amplified using a chain of linear amplifier to raise the power level.

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LOW LEVEL MODULATION TRANSMITTERS

 The linear amplifier can be class A, AB or B type amplifiers. The linear amplifier are used in order to avoid the wave form distortion in AM wave.

 The amplitude modulated signal is then transmitted using transmitted antenna.

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LOW LEVEL MODULATION TRANSMITTERS

 The transistorized modulator circuits can be used for low level modulator due to the low power which is to be handled.

 The low level transmitter does not require a large AF modulator power so its design is simplified.

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LOW LEVEL MODULATION TRANSMITTERS

 Overall efficiency is much lower compared to high level modulation . This reduce to the use of less efficient linear amplifiers.

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AUDIO PROCESSING

The AF modulating signal is passed through an audio processing unit before applying it to the modulator. This block carries out some form of

“speech processing” in the form of filtering and amplitude control. The weak signals amplified automatically

with a higher gain and strong signals are amplified with smaller gain. This will bring all the signals to a sufficient level.

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HIGH LEVEL MODULATION TRANSMITTERS

 The generation of AM wave takes place at high power levels.

RF Carrier Oscillator

Narrow Band Power Amplifier

High Level Modulator

Wide Band Power Amplifier

Signal Source (Modulating Signal)

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HIGH LEVEL MODULATION TRANSMITTERS

 Highly efficient class C amplifier are used in high level modulation.

 Efficiency is more than low level modulation.

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Class A RF amplifier

Stabilized RF crystal oscillator

Antenna

Class A AF amplifier

Audio processing & filtering

AF modulating signal

Class C RF power amplifier

High Level Modulator

Class B AF power amplifier

HIGH LEVEL MODULATION TRANSMITTERS

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HIGH LEVEL MODULATION TRANSMITTERS

 Many of the AM transmitters use the high level modulation technique.

 The crystal oscillator produces the required carrier signal. The class A amplifier following the oscillator acts as a buffer which isolates the oscillator from the high power circuit.

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HIGH LEVEL MODULATION TRANSMITTERS

 The output of this class A amplifier is applied to a class C power amplifier. It raises the power level of the carrier to an intermediately high value.

 The AF modulating signal is applied to the audio processing unit which processes this signal as discussed in the previous section.

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COMPARISION BETWEEN LOW-LEVEL AND HIGH-LEVEL MODULATION

1. Power level :  Modulation is carried

out at low power level.

2. Amplifier stages:  Need lesser amplifier

stages.

 Modulation is carried out at high power level.

 Need more amplifier stages.

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COMPARISION BETWEEN LOW-LEVEL AND HIGH-LEVEL MODULATION

3. Power efficiency :  After modulation linear

amplifiers can only be used. This gives lower power efficiency.

4. Power losses :  Power losses in

amplifiers is higher, the cooling problem is severe.

 Non linear amplifiers can also be used. This leads to higher power efficiency.

 Power losses is less, the cooling problem is not severe.

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COMPARISION BETWEEN LOW-LEVEL AND HIGH-LEVEL MODULATION

5. Applications :  Used as higher power

broadcast transmitters.  Used in TV

transmitters.

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FM TRANSMITTERS

 Frequency modulation technique is used.

 In FM frequency of the carrier is varied in proportion with the amplitude of the modulating signal keeping its amplitude constant.

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FM TRANSMITTERS

 Used in radio, TV sound broadcasting & police wireless transmission.

 In FM transmitter the FM signal is transmitted by a transmitter. The information is contained in its frequency variation.

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FM TRANSMITTERS

 The FCC has assigned a band of 20 MHz to the commercial FM broad cast service.

 This band extends from 88 MHz to 108 MHz.

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FM TRANSMITTERS

 This 20 MHz band is divided in 100 channels, each having a bandwidth of 200 KHz.

 For providing high quality reliable music the maximum frequency deviation allowed is 75 KHz, with a maximum modulating signal frequency of 15 KHz.

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METHODS OF FM GENERATION

Indirect MethodsDirect Methods

Methods of FM Generation

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DIRECT FM

 In direct FM generation the frequency of the carrier is changed directly in proportion with the modulating signal amplitude.

Types of Direct FM  Reactance modulator

 Varactor diode modulator

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DIRECT FM

 These methods use a varactor diode or a reactance transistor for presenting a variable reactance across the frequency determining circuit of an oscillator.

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DIRECT FM

Oscillator Tank Circuit

Modulating Signal

Variable reactance device

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DIRECT FM

 When the variable reactance of the device varies with the modulating signal the oscillator generator the corresponding FM signal.

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DIRECT MODULATORS

 Few other direct modulators are:

 Varactor diode modulator.  Reactance modulator.  V.C.O. modulator.  Stabilized reactance modulator.  Cross by direct FM transmitters.

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REACTANCE MODULATOR

 In the reactance modulator, a transistor or FET is operated as a variable reactance (inductive or capacitive) device.

 This device is connected across the tuned circuit of an oscillator.

 As the instantaneous value of modulating voltage changes, the reactance offered by the transistor or FET will change proportionally.

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VARACTOR DIODE

 Here the voltage applied across the varactor diode varies in proportion with the modulating voltage.

 This will vary the junction capacitance of the varactor diode. The varactor diode appears in parallel with the oscillator tuned circuit. Hence the oscillator frequency will change with change in varactor diode capacitance and FM wave is produced.

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ADVANTAGES OF DIRECT FM MODULATION

 The main advantage of direct FM generation is the simplicity of the modulators and their low cost.

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DISADVANTAGES OF DIRECT METHOD

 In the direct method of FM generation we have to use the LC oscillator. The LC oscillator frequency is not stable.

 Therefore its not possible to use such oscillator for communication or broadcast purpose.

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DIRECT FM

 Therefore we have to use a scheme in which we can use the crystal oscillator to control the carrier frequency.

 Therefore we have to use the automatic frequency control system.

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INDIRECT METHOD ( ARMSTRONG METHOD)

 Here FM is obtained through phase modulation.

 A Crystal oscillator is used and hence the frequency stability is very high.

 A narrow band PM signal is generated via DSB- SC signal and a 90° phase shifted sub carrier signal from a crystal oscillator.

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INDIRECT METHOD ( ARMSTRONG METHOD)

 The integration of the modulating signal makes the NBPM signal to NBFM signal.

 This NBFM signal is applied to a harmonic generator (frequency multiplier) which will increase both the carrier frequency and the maximum deviation to the required.

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COMPARISION OF AM AND FM BROADCASTING

AM Broadcasting  It requires smaller

transmission bandwidth.

 It can be operated in low, medium and high frequency bands.

 It has wider coverage.

FM Broadcasting  It requires larger bandwidth.  It needs to be operated in very

high and frequency bands.  Its range is restricted to 50 km.

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COMPARISION OF AM AND FM BROADCASTING

 The demodulation is simple.

 The stereophonic transmission is not possible.

 The system has poor noise performance.

 The process of demodulation is complex.

 In this, stereophonic transmission is possible.

 It has an improved noise performance.

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REVISION

 What is Transmitter  Classification of Transmitters  Based on Type of modulation  Based on Transmitted frequency

 AM Transmitters  Types of AM transmitters

 Low Level modulation transmitter  High Level modulation transmitter

 FM Transmitters  Types of FM generation  Direct method of FM generation  Indirect method of FM generation

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