Abnormality - Fundamentals of Psychology - Lecture Slides, Slides for Introduction to Psychology. Agra University

Introduction to Psychology

Description: Abnormality, Abnormal Psychology, Defining Abnormality, Personal Distress, Maladaptiveness of Behavior, Mental Disorder, Role of Culture, Ataque De Nervios, Ghost Sickness, Classifying Abnormal Behaviors. This lecture is for Introductory course of Psychology. This course introduces every topic of psychology. Few important points from these lecture slides are given in beginning.
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Abnormal Psychology
What does it mean to be insane?
Abnormal Psychology
Normal behavior and abnormal behavior are
continuous with each other…So I think the
best reason for studying abnormal behavior is
that we learn to understand ourselves.
zGeorge Albee
One of the great pleasures of mental health
(whatever it is) is how much less time I have
to spend thinking about myself.
zSusanna Kaysen
Abnormal Psychology
Suicide is a permanent solution to a
temporary problem.
zPhil Donahue
Though this be madness, yet there’s method
in it.
zShakespeare (Hamlet, ii, 2)
How come when we talk to God, we’re
praying, but when God talks to you, we’re
schizophrenic?
zLily Tomlin
Abnormal Psychology
One out of four people in this country is
mentally imbalanced. Think of your
three closest friends – if they seem
okay, then you’re the one.
zAnn Landers
Just because you are paranoid doesn’t
mean they’re not out to get you.
zUnknown
Defining Abnormality
Deviation from statistical norms
Deviation from social norms
zNorms: Societal standards for acceptable
behavior
Maladaptiveness of behavior
zAdverse effects on the individual or on
society
Personal distress
zSubjective feelings of distress
What is normal?
Appropriate
perception of reality
Ability to exercise
voluntary control
over behavior
Self-esteem and
acceptance
Ability to form
affectionate
relationships
Productivity
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Mental disorder: What is it?
Example: A person in a restaurant screams
out "I don't like my food".
zThe person becomes more and more agitated.
zFinally, the person throws themselves down onto
the floor and starts crying.
How do you interpret this behavior?
zMental disorder? Yes................... No.....................
Mental disorders are extreme cases of
behaviors we have all experienced
Role of Culture
Amok
zMalaysia, Laos,
Phillippines
zBrooding, followed by
violent behavior
zPersecutory ideas
zAmnesia
zExhaustion
Ataque de nervios
zLatin America
zUncontrollable shouting
zCrying
zTrembling
Ghost sickness
zAmerican Indians
zNightmares
zWeakness
zFeelings of danger
zLoss of appetite
Koro
zMalaysia, China
zSudden and intense
anxiety in the sexual
organs
zWill recede into the
body and cause death
Classifying Abnormal
Behaviors
Broad range of
behaviors
zAcute, transitory
zChronic, lifelong
No two individuals
behave in exactly the
same way
zBut general
characteristics and
patterns can be identified
Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of
Mental Disorders IV
zFunctional
classification system
zAmerican Psychiatric
Association
zFounded on the
system established
by the World Health
Organization
Five Axes
1. Clinical Syndromes
zDisorders that involve a deterioration of function.
2. Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation
zDisorders that persist through life
zpersonality disorder is a maladaptive, inflexible
way of dealing with situations and people.
3. General Medical Conditions
4. Psychosocial and environmental Problems
5. Global Assessment of Functioning Scale
zThe lower the number, the less likely individual
will function without treatment and support.
Prevalence of Disorders
Nearly 1/2 of Americans between 15 - 54 have had
a psychiatric disorder.
Rates of almost all disorders decline with
increasing income and education.
People between 25 - 34 have the highest overall
rates of mental illness.
1/6 of our population suffers from a disorder; only
40 percent ever receive psychiatric care.
Prevalence of Disorders: Sex and
Geography
Sex
zWomen more than men: anxiety and affective
disorders.
zMen more than women: substance abuse and
antisocial disorders.
Geography
zRural Americans just as likely as urbanites to suffer
from year-long or lifelong disorders.
zLifelong substance abuse disorders and lifelong
anxiety disorders are highest in the Western US.
zLifelong anxiety disorders are highest in the
Northeastern US.
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Comorbidity of Disorders Mental Disorders
Disorders first evident in
infancy, childhood, or
adolescence
zMental retardation
zAutism
zAttention deficit disorder
zSeparation anxiety
Delirium, dementia,
amnesiac, and other
cognitive disorders
zFunctioning of brain is
impaired
Psychoactive substance
abuse disorders
zAddictive behavior
Somatoform disorders
zPhysical disorders
zNo physiological basis
zPsychological factors
play a major role
Sleep disorders
zChronic insomnia
zExcessive sleepiness
zSleep apnea
zSleepwalking
zNarcolepsy
Mental Disorders
Sexual disorders
zProblems of sexual
identity
zTransgender
zProblems of sexual
performance
zImpotence
zSexual aim
zInterest in children
Factitious disorders
zPhysical or psychological
symptoms that are
intentionally produced or
feigned
zMalingering
Impulse control
disorders
zKleptomania
zPathological gambling
zPyromania
Eating disorders
zAnorexia
zBulimia
Other conditions that
require clinical attention
zMarital problems
zParent child difficulties
Perspectives on Mental
Disorders
Psychoanalytic approach
Behavioral perspective
Cognitive perspective
Perspectives on Mental
Disorders
Evolutionary Perspective
3 Sources of Psychological Disorders
zMechanism functioning normally, but has negative
consequences
zMismatch between ancestral and current environments
zBrain malfunction
Anxiety Disorders
Hazel was walking
down a street near her
home one day when
she suddenly felt
flooded with intense
and frightening physical
symptoms. Her whole
body tightened up, she
began sweating and her
heart was racing, she
felt dizzy and
disoriented.
She thought, “I must be
having a heart attack! I
can’t stand this!
Something terrible is
happening! I’m going to
die.” Hazel just stood
frozen in the middle of
the street until an
onlooker stopped to
help her.
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