What does it mean to be insane?
Normal behavior and abnormal behavior are
continuous with each other…So I think the
best reason for studying abnormal behavior is
that we learn to understand ourselves.
One of the great pleasures of mental health
(whatever it is) is how much less time I have
to spend thinking about myself.
Suicide is a permanent solution to a
Though this be madness, yet there’s method
zShakespeare (Hamlet, ii, 2)
How come when we talk to God, we’re
praying, but when God talks to you, we’re
One out of four people in this country is
mentally imbalanced. Think of your
three closest friends – if they seem
okay, then you’re the one.
Just because you are paranoid doesn’t
mean they’re not out to get you.
Deviation from statistical norms
Deviation from social norms
zNorms: Societal standards for acceptable
Maladaptiveness of behavior
zAdverse effects on the individual or on
zSubjective feelings of distress
What is normal?
perception of reality
Ability to exercise
Ability to form
Mental disorder: What is it?
Example: A person in a restaurant screams
out "I don't like my food".
zThe person becomes more and more agitated.
zFinally, the person throws themselves down onto
the floor and starts crying.
How do you interpret this behavior?
zMental disorder? Yes................... No.....................
Mental disorders are extreme cases of
behaviors we have all experienced
Role of Culture
zBrooding, followed by
Ataque de nervios
zFeelings of danger
zLoss of appetite
zSudden and intense
anxiety in the sexual
zWill recede into the
body and cause death
Broad range of
No two individuals
behave in exactly the
patterns can be identified
Statistical Manual of
Mental Disorders IV
zFounded on the
by the World Health
1. Clinical Syndromes
zDisorders that involve a deterioration of function.
2. Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation
zDisorders that persist through life
zpersonality disorder is a maladaptive, inflexible
way of dealing with situations and people.
3. General Medical Conditions
4. Psychosocial and environmental Problems
5. Global Assessment of Functioning Scale
zThe lower the number, the less likely individual
will function without treatment and support.
Prevalence of Disorders
Nearly 1/2 of Americans between 15 - 54 have had
a psychiatric disorder.
Rates of almost all disorders decline with
increasing income and education.
People between 25 - 34 have the highest overall
rates of mental illness.
1/6 of our population suffers from a disorder; only
40 percent ever receive psychiatric care.
Prevalence of Disorders: Sex and
zWomen more than men: anxiety and affective
zMen more than women: substance abuse and
zRural Americans just as likely as urbanites to suffer
from year-long or lifelong disorders.
zLifelong substance abuse disorders and lifelong
anxiety disorders are highest in the Western US.
zLifelong anxiety disorders are highest in the