Advanced Computer Architecture
Nitika Newar, MCA
Deptt. of I.T.
Biyani Girls College, Jaipur
Advanced Computer Architecture
Parallel Computer Models : The state of computing, multiprecessors and
multicomputers, multivector and SIMD computers, architectural development tracks.
Program and Network Properties : Conditions of parallelism, program partitioning
and scheduling, program flow mechanisms.
System Interconnect Architectures : Network properties and routing, Static
interconnection network and dynamic intercommection networks.
Processors and Memory Hierachy : Advanced processor technology—CISC, RISC,
Superscalar, Vector VLIW and symbolic processors, memory technology.
Bus, Cache and Shared Memory.
Linerer Pipeline Processors, Nonlinear Pipeline, processors Instruction pipeline
Design Multiprocessors System Interconnets Vector Processing Principles, Multivector
S. No. Name of Topic Page No.
1. Parallel Computer Models 9-29
1.2 Parallel processing
1.3 State of computing
1.4 History of computer Architecture
1.6 Levels of Paralleism
1.7 Vector super computers
1.8 Shared memory multiprocessor
1.9 Distributed memory multicomputers
1.10 SIMD computers
1.11 Architectural Development Tracks
1.12 SIMD array processor
2. Program partitioning or scheduling 30-33
2.1 Program Flow Mechanisms
2.2 Data flow Architecture
2.3 Grain Sizes & Latency
2.4 Scheduling procedure
3. System Interconnect Architecture 34-42
3.1 Network properties
3.2 Bisection width
3.3 Data routing functions
Parallel Computer Models
Q.1. What is multiprocessors? What are the types of multi-processors?
Ans. A multiprocessor system is an inter connection of two or more CPUs with
memory as input-output equipment. A multiprocessors are
classified as multiple instruction stream, multiple data stream (MIMD) systems.
There are some similarties between multiprocessor & multicomputer systems
since both support concurrent operations. However there exists an important
distinction between a system with multiple computers & a system with multiple
processors. Computers are interconnected with each other by means of
communication lines to form a computer network. The network consists of
several autonomous computers that may or may not communicate with each
other. A multiprocessor system is controlled by one operating system that
provides inter-connection between processors& all the components of the system
cooperate in the solution of a problem very large scale integrated circuit
technology has reduced the cost of computer components to such a low level that
the concept of applying multiple processors to meet system performance
requirements has become an attractive design possibility.
Multiprocessing improves the reliability of system so that a failure or error in one
part has limited effect on rest of system. If a fault causes one processor to fail, a
second processor can be assigned to perform the functions of disabled processor.
The system as whole can continue to function correctly with perhaps some loss
in efficiency. The benefits derived from a multiprocessor organisation is an
improved system performance. The system derives its high performance from
the fact that computations can proceed in parallel in one of two ways:
1. Multiple independent jobs can be made to operate in parallel.
2. A single job can be partitioned into multiple parallel tasks.
An example is a computer system where are processor performs the
computations for an industrial process control while others monitors control
various parameter such as temperature and flow rate.
Another example is a computer where are processor performs high speed
floating point mathematical computations and another take care of routine data
Multiprocessing can improve performance by decomposing a
program into parallel executable tasks. This can be achieved in one of two ways: