Animal Tissues - Zoology - Lab Slides, Slides for Zoology. National Institute of Industrial Engineering

Zoology

Description: Its the important key points of lab slides of Zoology are:Animal Tissues, Malpighian Tubules, Gas Exchange, Fish Gills, Bird Flight Muscles, Simple Squamous Epithelium, Hyaline Cartilage, Lung Alveoli, Vagus Nerve Consists, Mammalian Diaphragm
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Slide 1

ANIMAL TISSUES

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Why waste time on histology at the

beginning of a zoology course?

If we don’t …. how do we talk about …

- the function of insect Malpighian tubules?

- gas exchange in fish gills?

- bird flight muscles?

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Zoology lectures will involve observations such as …..

“The mammalian diaphragm is a sheet of skeletal muscle”

“The vagus nerve consists of bundles of axons”

“Lung alveoli consist of simple squamous epithelium”

“Shark skeletons are dominated by hyaline cartilage”

Not everyone is up to speed on animal tissues

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ANIMAL TISSUES

Cells are not usually isolated -- instead they're

surrounded by other similar cells: TISSUE.

What are tissues??

DEF: Group of similar cells & intercellular substance

functioning together to perform a specialized activity.

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Study of tissues: HISTOLOGY

Histio = “tissue”

Logos = “study of”

All animal tissue can be place in 1 of 4 types.

What are the 4 types??

1) epithelial

2) connective

3) muscle

4) nervous

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EPITHELIAL TISSUE

2 locations: a) glands

b) covering surfaces

* external (e.g., skin)

* lining “lumens” (e.g., stomach)

Organized in continuous layers ..... thin to thick.

Tightly packed .... little intercellular material.

All epithelial are anchored by a basement membrane.

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DEF: Group of similar cells & intercellular

substance functioning together to perform a

specialized activity.

Epithelia

mostly minimal

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Rules for Naming Epithelia are based on…

Number of cell layers

Simple (1 layer)

Stratified (2 or more layers)

Cell shape

Squamous

Cuboidal

Columnar

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Simple squamous epithelium

Simple columnar epithelium

Stratified squamous epithelium

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Some epithelia are simple squamous … others are

heavily stratified.

Why does this make sense?

Examples??

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Simple Squamous

Epithelia

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L

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SMALL INTESTINE LINING

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* *

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Stratum Corneum

Human

Skin

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Human Skin

White

Black

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CONNECTIVE TISSUE

Most abundant tissue in body.

- Binds (ligaments)

- Supports (mesenteries)

- Protects (bone)

Does not occur on free surfaces (like epithelia).

Cells are few ..... fibroblast is a common example.

“Matrix” is abundant.

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DEF: Group of similar cells & intercellular

substance functioning together to perform a

specialized activity.

few much

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Matrix is produced by the CT cells --- nonliving

May be fluid, semifluid, mucus-like, or fibrous.

Matrix determines the CT’s quality:

- cartilage matrix = firm but pliable

- bone matrix = hard & not pliable

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Matrix often contains protein fibers ... most

abundant is collagen.

Collagen is produced by fibroblasts.

Collagen represents 30 % of total body protein!!

Completely inelastic ... greater tensile strength

than steel.

Another common protein fiber: elastic fiber

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Loose (= areolar) Connective Tissue

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Adipose Tissue

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Dense Regular Connective Tissue

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S

T

R

E

T

C

H

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Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

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Skeleton: CARTILAGE

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Hyaline Cartilage

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Bone Tissue

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Living

Bone

Cell

Repeating Structural Unit in Compact Bone:

the OSTEON

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Compact Bone Tissue

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Blood (a connective tissue!)

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MUSCLE TISSUE

3 types – 3 locations

- Skeletal muscle

- Cardiac muscle

- Smooth muscle

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DEF: Group of similar cells & intercellular

substance functioning together to perform a

specialized activity.

mostly little

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Skeletal (voluntary & striated) muscle

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Cross Sections

of Skeletal

Muscle Cells

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Cardiac Muscle (striated & involuntary)

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Smooth muscle

- found in the walls of structures having a lumen

- nonstriated

- involuntary

- potentially misidentified as dense regular connective tissueDocsity.com

NERVOUS TISSUE

2 Main Cell Types

- Neurons

- Glial cells

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Anatomy of a

typical neuron

(wrong)

Direction

of

Information

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Where neurons contact

muscle cells …

Neuromuscular Junction

or

Motor End Plate

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Nerves are big things … they contain lots

of Axons …

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Nerve

Cross Section

Nerve

Longitudinal Section

sciatic

nerve

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KEYS TO SUCCESS

Don’t be overwhelmed today

Use good visual resources

View > 1 version of the same slide

Work/share with multiple partners

Review slides outside of class

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