Cells to Organ Systems - Human Biology - Lecture Slides, Slides for Basic Human Biology. KIIT University

Basic Human Biology

Description: These are the lecture slides of Human Biology. Key important points are: Cells to Organ Systems, Protection, Absorption, Filtration, Excretion, Secretion, Sensory Reception, Membranous Epithelia, Glandular Epithelia, Exocrine Gland
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Epithelia comes in 2 forms: 1. Glandular epithelia 2. Membranous epithelia Functions:

• Protection • Absorption • Filtration • Excretion • Secretion • Sensory reception

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Exocrine Gland ducted glands

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Exocrine Gland ducted glands

Merocrine gland Holocrine gland Docsity.com

Goblet cells

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Secretes product directly directly in blood

Secretes product through duct

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• Simple Squamous Epithelium • Simple Cuboidal Epithelium • Simple Columnar Epithelium • Stratified Epithelium • Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium • Transitional Epithelium

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Simple Squamous Epithelium

Function: gas exchange in lungs Location: lines blood vessels, lymph vessels and various membranes within the thorax and abdomen

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Simple Squamous Cells

Frog skin Docsity.com

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

Function: secretion and absorption

Location: kidney tubules Docsity.com

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

Mammalian kidney Docsity.com

Simple Columnar Epithelium

Function: protection, secretion and absorption (associated w/goblet cells-exocrine) Location: lines uterus and digestive tract

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Simple Columnar Epithelium

1. Smooth muscle (long. layer) 2. Smooth muscle (circ. layer) 3. Simple columnar epithelium 4. Goblet cell 5. Lumen of the intestine

Cross section of small intestine

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Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Function: protects underlying cells from harmful env. effects

Location: covers skin, lines mouth and throat, vagina, and anal canal Docsity.com

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

1. Stratified squamous epithelium 2. Lumen of the esophagus 3. Connective tissue

Cross section of esophagus Docsity.com

Epidermis of the Skin

cornified layer of dead cells

stratified squamous epithelium

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Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium

goblet cell

Function: secretion and propulsion of mucus

Location: lines respiratory and reproductive system Docsity.com

Stratified columnar

Function: protection and secretion

Location: rare in body, small amount in male urethra and in large ducts of some glands

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Transitional

Function: stretches

Location: lines ureters, bladder and part of urethra

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Tight Junction • fluid tight seal • prevents fluid from leaving a cavity

Anchoring Junction (adherens, desmosome &

hemidesmosome) • tissues that stretch, ex. Heart muscle

Gap Junction

• passage of chemical & electrical signals

Contact points between the plasma membrane of tissue cells.

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Gap Junction

Hemidesmosome Desmosome Adherens

Tight Junction

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Connective Tissues

• Loose Connective Tissue • Dense Connective Tissue • Adipose Tissue • Cartilage • Bone • Blood

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Connective Tissues Functions: 1. Connects body parts 2. Protection 3. Insulation 4. Transport substances

Common characteristics: 1. All originate from mesenchyme 2. Well vascularized 3. Extracellular matrix Three main elements: 1. Ground substance 2. Fibers 3. Cells

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Loose Connective Tissue

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Embryonic Connective Tissue

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Loose Connective Tissue (areolar)

1. Collagen fiber 2. Elastic fiber

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Location: lymphoid organs- spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow

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Adipose Tissue

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Adipose Tissue

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Dense Connective Tissue

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Dense Regular Connective Tissue

Cross section of tendon Docsity.com

Cartilage

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Hyaline Cartilage

Costal cartilage between ribs Docsity.com

Elastic Cartilage

chondrocytes in lacunae

elastic fibers

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Fibrocartilage

chondrocyte in lacuna

collagen fibers

Invertebral discs, pubic symphysis, disks of knees

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Bone

compact bone

spongy bone

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Compact Bone

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Compact Bone

osteocytes in lacunae

central canal

canaliculi in matrix

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Blood

erythrocytes

leukocytes

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Muscle Tissues

• Skeletal Muscle Tissue • Smooth Muscle Tissue • Cardiac Muscle Tissue

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Skeletal Muscle Tissue

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Skeletal Muscle Tissue

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Smooth Muscle Tissue

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Smooth Muscle Tissue

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Cardiac Muscle Tissue

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Cardiac Muscle Tissue

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Nervous Tissue

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Biology 100 Human Biology

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Main Body Cavities

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Planes of Symmetry

Distal

Proximal

Frontal plane

Posterior

Anterior Midsagittal plane

Transverse plane

Superior

Inferior

Medial & Lateral

oblique

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Organ Systems

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Organ Systems

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The Skin as an Organ

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Protection- mechanical, chemical, bacterial Cooling the body Prevent water loss Synthesize vitamin D Sensation

Function

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The Skin An organ, cells constantly dying and being replaced

Facts: Weighs 9-11 lbs s.a. = 1.5-2m2 1 cm2 has 70 cm blood vessels, 55 cm nerves, 100 sweat glands, 15 oil glands, 230 sensory receptors New skin produced in 25-45 days

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The Epidermis

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The Language of Anatomy

1. What are the four types of planes that may be

passed through the body? 2. Is the radius proximal to the humerus? 3. Is the esophagus anterior to the trachea? 4. Are the ribs superficial to the lungs? 5. Is the urinary bladder medial to the ascending

colon? 6. Is the sternum lateral to the descending colon? 7. A mature bone cell is called ____?

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Inquiry

1. What is the difference between the three types of muscle tissue?

2. What type of epithelia tissue has many layers of flattened cells?

3. What layer in the epidermis are new skin cells produced?

4. What is the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands?

5. Which organ system includes the thymus and pancreas?

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