# Chi Square Distribution - Basic Statistics for Sociology - Lecture Slides, Slides for Statistics for Psychologists. Shree Ram Swarup College of Engineering & Management

## Statistics for Psychologists

Description: Chi Square Distribution, Basic Logic, Terminology, Bivariate Tables, Computation, Five Step Model, Significant Differences, Cell Frequencies, Random Chance, Raw Data are the important key points of lecture slides of Basic Statistics for Sociology.
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Chapter 10. Chi Square (Hypothesis Testing IV)

Chapter 11 (10 in 2nd Can. Ed.)

Hypothesis Testing Using the Chi Square (χ2) Distribution

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Outline:

• The basic logic of Chi Square. • The terminology used with bivariate tables. • The computation of Chi Square with an

example problem using the Five Step Model

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Basic Logic • Chi Square is a test of significance based on bivariate

tables.

• We are looking for significant differences between the actual cell frequencies in a table (fo) and those that would be expected by random chance (fe).

• The data are often presented in a table format. If starting with raw data on two variables, a bivariate table must be created first.

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Bivariate Tables:

• Must have a title. • Cells are intersections of columns and rows. • Subtotals are called marginals. • N is reported at the intersection of row and

column marginals.

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Tables (cont.)

• Columns are scores of the independent variable. – There will be as many columns as there are scores

on the independent variable.

• Rows are scores of the dependent variable. – There will be as many rows as there are scores on

the dependent variable.

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Tables (cont.)

• There will be as many cells as there are scores on the two variables combined.

• Each cell reports the number of times each combination of scores occurred.

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What your table should look like: Title

Rows Columns  Total

Row 1 cell a cell b Row Marginal 1

Row 2 cell c cell d Row Marginal 2

Total Column Marginal 1

Column Marginal 2

N

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The Chi Square Distribution • The chi square distribution is asymmetric and its values

are always positive (Appendix C, Healey, p. 498). Degrees of freedom are based on the table and are calculated as (rows-1)X(columns-1).

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Example: Healey #11.2 (#10.2 in 2nd) • Question: Are the homicide rate and volume of gun sales

related for a sample of 25 cities?

• The bivariate table showing the relationship between homicide rate (columns) and gun sales (rows). This 2x2 table has 4 cells.

GUN SALES Low High Totals

High 8 5 13

Low 4 8 12

Totals 12 13 N = 25

HOMICIDE RATE

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Solution Using 5-Step Method Step 1 Make Assumptions and Meet Test Requirements

• Independent random samples • Level of measurement is nominal • Note that no assumption is made about the

shape of the sampling distribution. When the distribution is normal, a parametric test (Z- or t-test, ANOVA) can be used.

• The chi square test is non-parametric. It can be used when normality is not assumed.

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Step 2 State the Null and Alternate Hypothesis

• H0: The variables are independent – You can also say: H0: fo = fe

• H1: The variables are dependent – Or: H1: fo ≠ fe

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Step 3 Select the Sampling Distribution and Establish the Critical Region

• Because normality is not assumed and our data are in tabular form, our Sampling Distribution = χ2

• Alpha = .05 • df = (r-1)(c-1) = 1 • χ2 (critical) = 3.841

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Step 4 Calculate the Test Statistic • Formula:

χ2 (obtained) =

Method: 1. Find expected frequencies for each cell.

2. Complete computational table to find χ2 (obtained)

∑ − e

eo

f ff 2)(

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1. Find expected frequencies for each cell.

• To find fe =

• Multiply column and row marginals for each cell and divide by N.

• (13*12)/25 = 156/25 = 6.24 • (13*13)/25 = 169/25 = 6.76 • (12*12)/25 = 144/25 = 5.76 • (12*13)/25 = 156/25 = 6.24

N marginalcolumn marginal row ×

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Observed and Expected Frequencies for each cell (Note that totals are

unchanged): HOMICIDE RATE

GUN SALES Low High Total

High fo = 8 fe = 6.24 fo = 5

fe = 6.76 13

Low fo = 4 fe = 5.76 fo = 8

fe = 6.24 12

Total 12 13 N = 25

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2. Complete Computational Table • A table like this will help organize the computations: • (a) Add values for fo and fe for each cell to table.

fo fe fo - fe (fo - fe)2 (fo - fe)2 /fe

8 6.24

5 6.76

4 5.76

8 6.24

Total 25 25

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Computational Table (cont.)

• (b) Subtract each fe from each fo. The total of this column must be zero.

fo fe fo - fe (fo - fe)2 (fo - fe)2 /fe

8 6.24 1.76

5 6.76 -1.76

4 5.76 -1.76

8 6.24 1.76

Total 25 25 0

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Computational Table (cont.) • (c) Square each of these values

fo fe fo - fe (fo - fe)2 (fo - fe)2 /fe

8 6.24 1.76 3.10

5 6.76 -1.76 3.10

4 5.76 -1.76 3.10

8 6.24 1.76 3.10

Total 25 25 0

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Computational Table (cont.) • (d) Divide each of the squared values by the fe for that cell. • (e) The sum of this column is chi square.

• χ2 (obtained) = 2.00

fo fe fo - fe (fo - fe)2 (fo - fe)2 /fe

8 6.24 1.76 3.10 .50

5 6.76 -1.76 3.10 .46

4 5.76 -1.76 3.10 .54

8 6.24 1.76 3.10 .50

Total 25 25 0 χ2 = 2.00

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Step 5 Make a Decision and Interpret the Results of the Test

• χ2 (critical) = 3.841 • χ2 (obtained) = 2.00 • The test statistic is not in the Critical Region.

Fail to reject the H0. • There is no significant relationship between

homicide rate and gun sales.

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Interpreting Chi Square

• The chi square test tells us only if the variables are independent or not.

• It does not tell us the pattern or nature of the relationship.

• To investigate the pattern, compute % within each column and compare across the columns.

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Interpreting Chi Square (cont.) • Cities low on homicide rate were high in gun sales and cities high in

homicide rate were low in gun sales. • As homicide rates increase, gun sales decrease. This relationship is

not significant but does have a clear pattern.

GUN SALES Low High Total

High 8 (66.7%) 5 (38.5%) 13

Low 4 (33.3%) 8 (61.5%) 12

Total 12 (100%) 13 (100%) N = 25

HOMICIDE RATE

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The Limits of Chi Square

• Like all tests of hypothesis, chi square is sensitive to sample size. – As N increases, obtained chi square increases. – With large samples, trivial relationships may be

significant. To correct for this, when N>1000, set your alpha = .01.

• Remember: significance is not the same thing as importance.

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Yates’ Correction for Continuity • The chi square statistic is sensitive to small cell sizes.

Whenever any of your cell sizes are <5, a slightly modified formula (Yates’ correction for continuity) to calculate chi square should be used (see Healey Formula 11.4)

• Modified Formula (Note:.5 is deducted from the absolute value of fo – fe before squaring)

(obtained) =

∑ −−

e

eo

f ff 2)5.0(2

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Using SPSS to Calculate Chi Square 1. Open data set in SPSS. 2. Go to Analyze>Descriptive Statistics>Crosstabs. 3. Move your dependent variable into the Rows box, and

your independent variable into the Columns box. 4. Click Statistics and check box for Chi square. 5. Click Cells and select Column in percentages box. 6. Click Continue and OK.

Note: The “rule of thumb” for analyzing your % data is “Percentage Down, Compare Across” When analyzing your %, always compare the categories of your dependent (Row) variable across the columns of your independent (Column) variable.

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Practice Question:

• Try Healey #11.3 (#10.3 in 2nd) parts a and b.

• Use the five step model to calculate a full solution to this question.

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