Chapter Learning Objectives
•The necessity for adapting to cultural differences
•How and why management styles vary around the world
•The extent and implications of gender bias in other
•The importance of cultural differences in business ethics
•The differences between relationship-oriented and
All who wish to deal with individuals, firms, or authorities in foreign
countries should be able to meet 10 basic criteria:
-1) open tolerance
-5) ability to adjust to varying tempos
-7) knowledge of the country
-8) liking for others
-9) ability to command respect
-10) ability to integrate oneself into the environment
Degree of Adaptation
•Essential to effective adaptation is awareness of one’s
own culture and the recognition that differences in others
can cause anxiety, frustration, and misunderstanding of
the host’s intentions.
•The self-reference criterion (SRC) is especially operative
in business customs.
•The key to adaptation is to remain American but to
develop an understanding of and willingness to
accommodate the differences that exist.
•The business customs and expectations that must be met
and conformed to or avoided
•Friendship motivates local agents to make more sales.
•The significance of establishing friendship cannot be
overemphasized, especially in those countries where
family relationships are close.
•In some cultures a person’s demeanor is more critical
than in other cultures
•What may be an imperative to avoid in one culture is an
imperative to do in another.