Engineering Education and Professions - Introduction to Engineering - Lecture Slides, Slides for Engineering Economics. Punjab Engineering College

Engineering Economics

Description: The main points are:Engineering Education and Professions, Profile of Engineering, Educational Trends, Common Students’ Mistakes, Trend of Increasing Enrollment, Present Employment, Bachelor Degrees, Career Expectations, Job Location
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Ergonomists, Designers and Manufacturing Engineers: Seeing Eye to Eye

Profile of an Engineering Education and Professions

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Objectives

Describe the educational trends in engineering, such as, enrollment rates and the number of earned bachelor degrees. Describe the current and future state of

engineering employment. Explain factors that influence undergraduate

academic performance. Describe the steps you can take to have a

successful undergraduate career and to prepare for your professional career.

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Profile of an Engineering Education and Professions

Getting informed is important since you need to: – Determine if you wish to pursue a career in

engineering. – Make a more informed decision when choosing

your major. – Take necessary steps towards a successful

engineering career.

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Engineering Education and the Profession of Engineering

Common students’ mistakes: – Enter University with little knowledge of

University expectations. – Lacking sufficient information about career

opportunities. – Complete their degree without the necessary

tools and experience needed to compete in the job market.

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Educational Trends

The number of High School graduates is the most important factor influencing the engineering programs’ enrollment. 63% of the High School graduating class of

2000 was enrolled in colleges. 67% is the record high in 1997.

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Educational Trends

High School graduating classes of 2000 going to college: 64% of the white, 56.2% of the black, and 53% of the Hispanic. The trend of increasing enrollment by

underrepresented minorities has persisted annually (1990-1996). – 3% - Black – 7.7% - Hispanic – 8% - Asian/ Pacific Islanders

 National Science Board (NSB), Science and Engineering Indicators –2000, National Science Board.

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Educational Trends

Engineering enrollment in 2002:

– 14.8% Underrepresented minorities (approx. 30% of the population were

underrepresented minorities). – 18.5% Female students (approx. 50% of population were female).

Engineering enrollment decreased between 1983-1996.

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Educational Trends

48% of Whites, 47% of Asians, 34% of Blacks, and 32% of Hispanics who entered a bachelor’s degree program in 1989 had earned their degree by Spring 1994.

37% of both Black and Hispanic students, compared with 27% of White students and 26% of Asian students, had earned no degree and were no longer enrolled toward a bachelor’s degree after 5 years.

 “Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering” report by the National Science Foundation.

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Educational Trends

Bachelor degrees earned by women -2001: – 48% in math. – 27.6% in computer science. – 20.2% in engineering.

Males showed a decline in bachelor degrees in all engineering fields in the 1990’s.

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Present Employment

To better understand your career expectations, it is useful to determine the present state of engineering with respect to employment. For example, in 1997:

– For profit companies employed 73% of B.S. recipients and 60% of M.S. recipients.

– 49% of doctorates were employed in academia. – Women composed 23% of the S&E Workforce.

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Present Employment

In 2000, Asians composed 14% of S&E population

(represent 4% of US population). Blacks composed 4.4% of S&E population

(represent 12% of US population). Hispanics composed 3.4% of S&E population

(represent 11% of US population). American Indians composed .3% of S&E

population (represent 1% of US population).

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Employment in Science and Engineering (1998-2008)

Employment for all engineering

occupations is expected to increase by an average of approx. 20%. – 26% - Electrical Engineering – 21% - Civil Engineering – 16% - Mechanical Engineering

 National Science Board (NSB), Science and Engineering Indicators –2000, National Science Board.

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Salaries

Think in long term about career expectations, including career goal, salary, job location, healthcare, time with family, and retirement. Salary is only one factor in the equation. Controllable variables include education,

experience, location, and job function. Non-controllable variables include the variance of

supply and demand for engineers.

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Factors that Influence Undergraduate Performance

Pre-College Academic Preparation

– One of the most common reasons for students to drop out of college.

– Studies show that only 6% of minority students graduate from High School with the math- science background essential to enroll in engineering programs.

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Factors that Influence Undergraduate Performance

Financial Aid – Among the most common reasons for students

to drop out of college. – A varied financial aid package proves to be

more effective than financial assistance consisting mainly of loans.

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Factors that Influence Undergraduate Performance

Full-Time Employment – Research shows that students employed full-

time take fewer courses per semester, which leads to a greater probability of dropout.

– These students may have less of a commitment to their academic studies than a full-time college student.

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Factors that Influence Undergraduate Performance

First Year Academic Performance – Research shows that a student’s first year

academic performance has an impact on retention.

– Students who earned a “B” average or better after their first college term were more likely to stay in school compared to students who earned an average of “C” or below.

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Factors that Influence Undergraduate Performance

First Generation College Students

– These students have higher attrition rates. – Usually less informed about the process

toward college preparation, expectations, and achievement.

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Factors that Influence Undergraduate Performance

Involvement in Campus Activities

– Research confirms that involvement strongly correlates with student retention.

– Allows the student to focus more in school and have fewer societal pressures outside school.

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Preparing for a Successful Undergraduate Education

It is important for engineering students to become proactive in their own educational process. You can help increase your success in your

undergraduate engineering education. Informational Activities

– Learn about the undergraduate college life. – Participate in campus activities, internships/jobs,

summer programs, financial aid fairs. – Seek academic/curriculum advise.

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Preparing for a Successful Undergraduate Education

Financial Aid & Scholarships, Advising – Learn about the different financial aid packages

available to you including federal and state grants, loans, privately funded scholarships, work-study programs, etc…

– Many large companies offer scholarships based on academic performance.

– Advisors are a valuable source for information for classes, scholarships, and internships.

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Preparing for a Successful Undergraduate Education

Professional Opportunities

– Participate in professional societies. – Attend student conferences and workshops. – Attend to short courses and new classes. – Participate in research and development

projects.

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