Genetics of Viruses and Bacteria - Introduction to Biology - Lecture Slides, Slides for Biology. Aliah University


Description: These are the lecture slides of Introduction to Biology. Key important points are: Genetics of Viruses and Bacteria, Collection of Techniques, Importance of Microbes, Fermentation Products, Mycorrhizal Fungi, Types of Viruses, Protein Capsids, Virion Particle
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Chapter 18:
The Genetics of
Viruses and
What is Microbiology?
Microbiology is the science that studies
Microorganisms, roughly, are those living things
that are too small to be seen with the naked eye
Microorganisms cannot be distinguished
phylogenetically from “Macroorganisms”, e.g.,
includes fungi as well as bacteria, etc. (that is,
they are not, as a whole, a closely related group
of organisms)
Microbiology is more a collection of techniques:
Aseptic technique, Pure culture technique,
Microscopic observation of whole organisms, etc.
A microbiologist usually first isolates a specific
microorganism from a population and then
cultures it
Importance of Microbes
Microbes are produces—they provide energy to
Microbes are fixers—they make nutrients available
from inorganic sources, e.g., nitrogen
Microbes are decomposersthey free up nutrients
from no longer living sources
Microbes form symbioses (such as mycorrhizal fungi
associated with plant roots—though these are
somewhat macroscopic; also the bacteria found in
legume root nodules, etc.)
Microbes serve as emdosymbionts (e.g., chloroplasts
and mitochondria)
Microbes make fermentation products (ethanol!), food
(beer! Cheese! Yogurt! Half-sour pickles!), Biotech
products (e.g., recombinant insulin), etc.
Germ theory of disease; Normal flora