Human Growth and Development - General Psychology - Lecture Notes, Study notes for Psychology. Alliance University

Psychology

Description: Human Growth and Development, Nature Vs Nurture, Stability Vs Change, Continuity Vs Stage, Prenatal Development, Three Stages, Embryonic Stage, Personality Development, Theory of Personality Development, Attachment and Child Care are points from the lecture.
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General Psychology
Human Growth and Development
Development:
The changes in physical, cognitive, and social abilities that occur throughout the
lifespan
Important Issues:
Nature vs. Nurture
Stability vs. Change
Continuity vs. Stage
Research Methods:
Longitudinal Method
Study one group of people over long period of time
Cross-Sectional Method
Study different age groups at the same time
Prenatal Development
Three Stages:
Germinal Stage
Zygote
Conception to 2 weeks
Embryonic Stage
2 weeks to 2 months
Fetal Stage
2 months to birth
Prenatal Nutrition: Teratogens
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Motor Development
Cephalocaudal
Development from head to foot
Proximodistal
Development from center outward
Maturation
Unfolding of genetic blueprint
Developmental Norms
Median age for behaviors to appear
Perception
Vision
At birth an infant can see in color
At birth child prefers human faces
By age 6 months acuity matches an adults
Hearing
Auditory localization, distinguish voices and speech
Personality Development
Temperament
Established within first few months of life
Remains stable through life
Primarily depends on genes
Uninhibited
Easily approach unfamiliar people, objects, situations
Inhibited
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Tend to be fearful of unfamiliar people, objects, situations
Easy Children
Happy, easy-going
Slow to Warm-up Children
Less happy, slowly adapt to change
Difficult Children
Downcast, resist change
Erik Erikson’s
Theory of Personality Development
Eight Stage Theory
Focuses on psychosocial development
Personality development through social interactions
Attachment Theory
Attachment Type
Secure
Anxious Resistant
Anxious Avoidant
Maternal Care
Secure
Responsive, Loving
Resistant
Incompetent, Negligent
Avoidant
Incompetent, Overbearing
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Research Shows:
Attachment type stays the same as child ages
Attachment a child has to one parent will be similar to that for another parent
Attachments develop with fathers and mothers at different times
Children living in poverty are less likely to develop secure attachments
A child with a secure attachment is more likely to be competent, happy
Attachment depends on culture
Attachment & Child Care
The effects of a child being in daycare depend on:
Age, gender, temperament
Social and economic status
Amount of time spent in daycare
Quality of the daycare
Attachment and Patterns of Adult Intimacy:
Secure
Stable relationships, high satisfaction
Resistant
"Love at first sight", partners smothered
Avoidant
Avoid close relationships, prefer flings
Parenting Style
Authoritative
Respect for child’s individuality
Clear cut standards consistently upheld
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