Lipids Classification- Biochemistry - Lecture Slides, Slides for Biochemistry. Bengal Engineering & Science University

Biochemistry

Description: Lipids, Basic Structure, What is a Lipid?, Any Substance That is Insoluble in Water, Saturated Fatty Acid, Charged Vs Neutral, Saturated Vs Unsaturated, Esterified Vs Non-Esterified, Odd Chain Vs Even Chain, Anatomy of a C14 Saturated Fatty Acid are main points of this lecture.
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Lipids

Lipids

• Classification

• Properties

• Function

• Basic Structure

Thought for today: If someone calls you a “FAT HEAD”,

first compliment them on their biochemical insight,

before you punch them in their fat head”.

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What is a Lipid?

Any substance that is insoluble in water but

soluble in organic solvents

Does this mean any water insoluble compound?

Yes

What are some examples I would recognize?

Cholesterol….a steroid Stearic acid….a saturated fatty acid Oleic acid…an unsaturated fatty acid Bees wax….a fatty acid ester Vitamins A,D,E,K…the fat-soluble vitamins Tripalmitin…a triacylglycerol Lecithin…a membrane glycerophospholipid

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Classifications (all lipids)

Simple vs Complex

Charged vs Neutral

Saturated vs Unsaturated

Esterified vs Non-esterified

Fatty Acids

Odd chain vs Even chain

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Anatomy of a C14 Saturated Fatty acid

CH3 COO - CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2

Methyl end group

Non-Polar

Charged carboxyl

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Fatty Acids

Rule: A lipid begins when water insolubility begins

CH3 CH2

Not yet

CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2

Getting There

CH2 CH2 CH2

Whoa!

CH2 COOH

C12 saturated fatty acid…..Lauric acid

C14 …..Myristic acid

C16…..Palmitic acid

C18…..Stearic acid

C20…..Arachidic

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Unsaturated Fatty Acid

Rule: Double bonds in fatty acids are always CIS

C=C H H

CH2 CH2

Rule: Double bonds are always separated

by a -CH2- group

H H H H C=C

CH2 CH2 C=C

CH2

Rule: Double bonds are always numbered 3 apart

1 2

3

Example 9,12 means a double bond on C9 and C12

9

11

10 12

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Rule: Cis double bonds put Kinks in fatty acid chains.

Corr: The more the double bonds the greater the bend

Cis D.B.

Saturated 1 D.B.

2 D.B.

Cis D.B.

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Trans Fatty Acids are to be avoided for health reasons

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Rule: Double Bonds lower melting point of a fatty acid

Corr: The more double bonds, the lower the melting point

D.B.

0 1 2 3 4

Melting

Temperature

Room Temperature

All Unsaturated

fats are oils at room

temperature

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Complex Lipids

What are they?

Lipids molecules comprised of more than one

component….the individual components are readily

disassembled by acid or base hydrolysis

Give me some examples

Acylglycerols = fatty acids esterified to glycerol

C-OH

CH

C-OH

HO-

H H

H H

Glycerol

R-CH2C-O

O -O-C-CH2C-R

O

-O-C-CH2C-R

O

Triacylglycerol

(Triglyceride)

Monoacylglycerol

Diacylglycerol

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Triacylglycerol

Saturated

Mono-

Unsaturated

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Glycerophospholipids = 2 fatty acids esterified to

glycerol with phosphate and an amine group

CH2O

CH

CH2-O

O-

C

O

C

O -R

R-

P

O

O O

HO-CH2CH2NH3 +

HO-CH2CH2N(CH3)3 +

HO-CH2CCOO -

+NH3

H

Phosphatidate

Ethanolamine

Choline

Serine

Inositol OH

OH OH

.

HO

HO HO

MEMBRANE

LIPIDS

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HO

Cholesterol

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