Programming the Basic Computer - Computer Architecture - Lecture Slides, Slides for Computer Architecture. Himgiri Zee University

Computer Architecture

Description: Programming the basic computer, Machine Language, Assembly Language, Assembler, Program Loops, Input Output Programming, Subroutines are the topics professor discussed in class.
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PROGRAMMING THE BASIC COMPUTER

PROGRAMMING THE BASIC COMPUTER

Introduction

Machine Language

Assembly Language

Assembler

Program Loops

Programming Arithmetic and Logic Operations

Subroutines

Input-Output Programming

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INTRODUCTION

Symbol Hexa code Description

Those concerned with computer architecture should

have a knowledge of both hardware and software

because the two branches influence each other.

m: effective address M: memory word (operand) found at m

Introduction

AND 0 or 8 AND M to AC ADD 1 or 9 Add M to AC, carry to E LDA 2 or A Load AC from M STA 3 or B Store AC in M BUN 4 or C Branch unconditionally to m BSA 5 or D Save return address in m and branch to m+1 ISZ 6 or E Increment M and skip if zero CLA 7800 Clear AC CLE 7400 Clear E CMA 7200 Complement AC CME 7100 Complement E CIR 7080 Circulate right E and AC CIL 7040 Circulate left E and AC INC 7020 Increment AC, carry to E SPA 7010 Skip if AC is positive SNA 7008 Skip if AC is negative SZA 7004 Skip if AC is zero SZE 7002 Skip if E is zero HLT 7001 Halt computer INP F800 Input information and clear flag OUT F400 Output information and clear flag SKI F200 Skip if input flag is on SKO F100 Skip if output flag is on ION F080 Turn interrupt on IOF F040 Turn interrupt off

Instruction Set of the Basic Computer

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MACHINE LANGUAGE

Program

A list of instructions or statements for directing

the computer to perform a required data

processing task

Various types of programming languages

- Hierarchy of programming languages

Machine-language

- Binary code

- Octal or hexadecimal code

Assembly-language (Assembler)

- Symbolic code

High-level language (Compiler)

Machine Language

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COMPARISON OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES

0 0010 0000 0000 0100 1 0001 0000 0000 0101 10 0011 0000 0000 0110 11 0111 0000 0000 0001 100 0000 0000 0101 0011 101 1111 1111 1110 1001 110 0000 0000 0000 0000

Binary Program to Add Two Numbers

Location Instruction Code 000 2004 001 1005 002 3006 003 7001 004 0053 005 FFE9 006 0000

Hexa program Location Instruction

Program with Symbolic OP-Code

000 LDA 004 Load 1st operand into AC 001 ADD 005 Add 2nd operand to AC 002 STA 006 Store sum in location 006 003 HLT Halt computer 004 0053 1st operand 005 FFE9 2nd operand (negative) 006 0000 Store sum here

Location Instruction Comments

Assembly-Language Program

Fortran Program

INTEGER A, B, C DATA A,83 / B,-23 C = A + B END

Machine Language

ORG 0 /Origin of program is location 0 LDA A /Load operand from location A ADD B /Add operand from location B STA C /Store sum in location C HLT /Halt computer A, DEC 83 /Decimal operand B, DEC -23 /Decimal operand C, DEC 0 /Sum stored in location C END /End of symbolic program

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ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE

Syntax of the BC assembly language

Each line is arranged in three columns called fields

Label field

- May be empty or may specify a symbolic

address consists of up to 3 characters

- Terminated by a comma

Instruction field

- Specifies a machine or a pseudo instruction

- May specify one of

* Memory reference instr. (MRI)

MRI consists of two or three symbols separated by spaces.

ADD OPR (direct address MRI)

ADD PTR I (indirect address MRI)

* Register reference or input-output instr.

Non-MRI does not have an address part

* Pseudo instr. with or without an operand

Symbolic address used in the instruction field must be

defined somewhere as a label

Comment field

- May be empty or may include a comment

Assembly Language

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PSEUDO-INSTRUCTIONS

ORG N

Hexadecimal number N is the memory loc.

for the instruction or operand listed in the following line

END

Denotes the end of symbolic program

DEC N

Signed decimal number N to be converted to the binary

HEX N

Hexadecimal number N to be converted to the binary

Example: Assembly language program to subtract two numbers

ORG 100 LDA SUB CMA INC ADD MIN STA DIF HLT DEC 83 DEC -23 HEX 0 END

/ Origin of program is location 100 / Load subtrahend to AC / Complement AC / Increment AC / Add minuend to AC / Store difference / Halt computer / Minuend / Subtrahend / Difference stored here / End of symbolic program

MIN, SUB, DIF,

Assembly Language

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TRANSLATION TO BINARY

ORG 100

LDA SUB

CMA

INC

ADD MIN

STA DIF

HLT

DEC 83

DEC -23

HEX 0

END

MIN,

SUB,

DIF,

100 2107

101 7200

102 7020

103 1106

104 3108

105 7001

106 0053

107 FFE9

108 0000

Symbolic Program Location Content

Hexadecimal Code

Assembly Language

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ASSEMBLER - FIRST PASS -

Assembler

Source Program - Symbolic Assembly Language Program Object Program - Binary Machine Language Program

Two pass assembler 1st pass: generates a table that correlates all user defined

(address) symbols with their binary equivalent value

2nd pass: binary translation

First pass

Assembler

First pass

LC := 0

Scan next line of code Set LC

Label no

yes

yes

no ORG

Store symbol in address- symbol table together with value of LC

END

Increment LC

Go to second pass

no

yes

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ASSEMBLER - SECOND PASS -

Machine instructions are translated by means of table-lookup procedures; (1. Pseudo-Instruction Table, 2. MRI Table, 3. Non-MRI Table 4. Address Symbol Table)

Assembler

Second pass

LC <- 0

Scan next line of code Set LC

yes

yes

ORG Pseudo instr.

yes END

no

Done

yes

MRI

no

Valid non-MRI

instr.

no

Convert operand to binary and store in location given by LC

no

DEC or HEX

Error in line of code

Store binary equivalent of instruction in location given by LC

yes

no Get operation code and set bits 2-4

Search address- symbol table for binary equivalent of symbol address and set bits 5-16

I

Set first bit to 0

Set first bit to 1

yes no

Assemble all parts of binary instruction and store in location given by LC

Increment LC

Second Pass

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PROGRAM LOOPS

DIMENSION A(100) INTEGER SUM, A SUM = 0 DO 3 J = 1, 100 SUM = SUM + A(J) 3

ORG 100 LDA ADS STA PTR LDA NBR STA CTR CLA ADD PTR I ISZ PTR ISZ CTR BUN LOP STA SUM HLT HEX 150 HEX 0 DEC -100 HEX 0 HEX 0 ORG 150 DEC 75 DEC 23 END

/ Origin of program is HEX 100 / Load first address of operand / Store in pointer / Load -100 / Store in counter / Clear AC / Add an operand to AC / Increment pointer / Increment counter / Repeat loop again / Store sum / Halt / First address of operands / Reserved for a pointer / Initial value for a counter / Reserved for a counter / Sum is stored here / Origin of operands is HEX 150 / First operand / Last operand / End of symbolic program

LOP, ADS, PTR, NBR, CTR, SUM,

Program Loops

Loop: A sequence of instructions that are executed many times, each with a different set of data Fortran program to add 100 numbers:

.

.

.

Assembly-language program to add 100 numbers:

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PROGRAMMING ARITHMETIC AND LOGIC OPERATIONS

- Software Implementation - Implementation of an operation with a program using machine instruction set - Usually when the operation is not included in the instruction set - Hardware Implementation - Implementation of an operation in a computer with one machine instruction Software Implementation example: * Multiplication - For simplicity, unsigned positive numbers

- 8-bit numbers -> 16-bit product

Programming Arithmetic and Logic Operations

Implementation of Arithmetic and Logic Operations

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FLOWCHART OF A PROGRAM - Multiplication -

X holds the multiplicand Y holds the multiplier P holds the product Example with four significant digits

0000 1111

0000 1011 0000 0000

0000 1111 0000 1111

0001 1110 0010 1101

0000 0000 0010 1101

0111 1000 1010 0101

1010 0101

Programming Arithmetic and Logic Operations

cil

CTR - 8 P 0

E 0

AC Y

Y AC

cir EAC

E

P P + X

E 0

AC X

il EAC

X AC

CTR CTR + 1

=1 =0

CTR =0

Stop 0

X =

Y =

P

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ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAM - Multiplication -

ORG 100 CLE LDA Y CIR STA Y SZE BUN ONE BUN ZRO LDA X ADD P STA P CLE LDA X CIL STA X ISZ CTR BUN LOP HLT DEC -8 HEX 000F HEX 000B HEX 0 END

/ Clear E / Load multiplier / Transfer multiplier bit to E / Store shifted multiplier / Check if bit is zero / Bit is one; goto ONE / Bit is zero; goto ZRO / Load multiplicand / Add to partial product / Store partial product / Clear E / Load multiplicand / Shift left / Store shifted multiplicand / Increment counter / Counter not zero; repeat loop / Counter is zero; halt / This location serves as a counter / Multiplicand stored here / Multiplier stored here / Product formed here

LOP, ONE, ZRO, CTR, X, Y, P,

Programming Arithmetic and Logic Operations

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ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAM - Double Precision Addition -

LDA AL ADD BL STA CL CLA CIL ADD AH ADD BH STA CH HLT

/ Load A low / Add B low, carry in E / Store in C low / Clear AC / Circulate to bring carry into AC(16) / Add A high and carry / Add B high / Store in C high

Programming Arithmetic and Logic Operations

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ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAM - Logic and Shift Operations -

Logic operations

- BC instructions : AND, CMA, CLA

- Program for OR operation

LDA A CMA STA TMP LDA B CMA AND TMP CMA

/ Load 1st operand / Complement to get A’ / Store in a temporary location / Load 2nd operand B / Complement to get B’ / AND with A’ to get A’ AND B’ / Complement again to get A OR B

Shift operations - BC has Circular Shift only

- Logical shift-right operation - Logical shift-left operation

CLE CLE

CIR CIL

- Arithmetic right-shift operation

CLE SPA CME CIR

/ Clear E to 0 / Skip if AC is positive / AC is negative / Circulate E and AC

Programming Arithmetic and Logic Operations

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SUBROUTINES

- A set of common instructions that can be used in a program many times.

- Subroutine linkage : a procedure for branching

to a subroutine and returning to the main program

ORG 100 LDA X BSA SH4 STA X LDA Y BSA SH4 STA Y HLT HEX 1234 HEX 4321 HEX 0 CIL CIL CIL CIL AND MSK BUN SH4 I HEX FFF0 END

/ Main program / Load X / Branch to subroutine / Store shifted number / Load Y / Branch to subroutine again / Store shifted number / Subroutine to shift left 4 times / Store return address here / Circulate left once / Circulate left fourth time / Set AC(13-16) to zero / Return to main program / Mask operand

X, Y, SH4, MSK,

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 10A 10B 10C 10D 10E 10F 110

Loc.

Subroutines

Subroutine

Example

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SUBROUTINE PARAMETERS AND DATA LINKAGE

ORG 200 LDA X BSA OR HEX 3AF6 STA Y HLT HEX 7B95 HEX 0 HEX 0 CMA STA TMP LDA OR I CMA AND TMP CMA ISZ OR BUN OR I HEX 0 END

/ Load 1st operand into AC / Branch to subroutine OR / 2nd operand stored here / Subroutine returns here / 1st operand stored here / Result stored here / Subroutine OR / Complement 1st operand / Store in temporary location / Load 2nd operand / Complement 2nd operand / AND complemented 1st operand / Complement again to get OR / Increment return address / Return to main program / Temporary storage

X, Y, OR, TMP,

200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 20A 20B 20C 20D 20E 20F 210

Loc.

Example: Subroutine performing LOGICAL OR operation; Need two parameters

Subroutines

Linkage of Parameters and Data between the Main Program and a Subroutine - via Registers - via Memory locations - ….

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SUBROUTINE - Moving a Block of Data -

BSA MVE HEX 100 HEX 200 DEC -16 HLT HEX 0 LDA MVE I STA PT1 ISZ MVE LDA MVE I STA PT2 ISZ MVE LDA MVE I STA CTR ISZ MVE LDA PT1 I STA PT2 I ISZ PT1 ISZ PT2 ISZ CTR BUN LOP BUN MVE I -- -- --

/ Main program / Branch to subroutine / 1st address of source data / 1st address of destination data / Number of items to move / Subroutine MVE / Bring address of source / Store in 1st pointer / Increment return address / Bring address of destination / Store in 2nd pointer / Increment return address / Bring number of items / Store in counter / Increment return address / Load source item / Store in destination / Increment source pointer / Increment destination pointer / Increment counter / Repeat 16 times / Return to main program

MVE, LOP, PT1, PT2, CTR,

Fortran subroutine

SUBROUTINE MVE (SOURCE, DEST, N) DIMENSION SOURCE(N), DEST(N) DO 20 I = 1, N DEST(I) = SOURCE(I) RETURN END

20

Subroutines

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INPUT OUTPUT PROGRAM

Program to Input one Character(Byte)

SKI BUN CIF INP OUT STA CHR HLT --

/ Check input flag / Flag=0, branch to check again / Flag=1, input character / Display to ensure correctness / Store character / Store character here

CIF, CHR,

LDA CHR SKO BUN COF OUT HLT HEX 0057

/ Load character into AC / Check output flag / Flag=0, branch to check again / Flag=1, output character / Character is "W"

COF, CHR,

Input Output Program

Program to Output a Character

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CHARACTER MANIPULATION

-- SKI BUN FST INP OUT BSA SH4 BSA SH4 SKI BUN SCD INP OUT BUN IN2 I

/ Subroutine entry / Input 1st character / Logical Shift left 4 bits / 4 more bits / Input 2nd character / Return

IN2, FST, SCD,

Subroutine to Input 2 Characters and pack into a word

Input Output Program

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PROGRAM INTERRUPT

Tasks of Interrupt Service Routine - Save the Status of CPU Contents of processor registers and Flags - Identify the source of Interrupt Check which flag is set - Service the device whose flag is set (Input Output Subroutine) - Restore contents of processor registers and flags - Turn the interrupt facility on - Return to the running program Load PC of the interrupted program

Input Output Program

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INTERRUPT SERVICE ROUTINE

- BUN SRV CLA ION LDA X ADD Y STA Z STA SAC CIR STA SE SKI BUN NXT INP OUT STA PT1 I ISZ PT1 SKO BUN EXT LDA PT2 I OUT ISZ PT2 LDA SE CIL LDA SAC ION BUN ZRO I - - - -

/ Return address stored here / Branch to service routine / Portion of running program / Turn on interrupt facility / Interrupt occurs here / Program returns here after interrupt / Interrupt service routine / Store content of AC / Move E into AC(1) / Store content of E / Check input flag / Flag is off, check next flag / Flag is on, input character / Print character / Store it in input buffer / Increment input pointer / Check output flag / Flag is off, exit / Load character from output buffer / Output character / Increment output pointer / Restore value of AC(1) / Shift it to E / Restore content of AC / Turn interrupt on / Return to running program / AC is stored here / E is stored here / Pointer of input buffer / Pointer of output buffer

ZRO, SRV, NXT, EXT, SAC, SE, PT1, PT2,

0 1 100 101 102 103 104 200

Loc.

Input Output Program

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