Reality Therapy - Theories of Counseling - Lecture Notes, Study notes for Counseling. Biju Patnaik University of Technology, Rourkela

Counseling

Description: Reality Therapy, Choice Theory, Cycle of Counseling, Paining Behaviors, Psychological Needs, Quality World, Self Evaluation, Key Figures, Major Focus, Philosophy and Basic Assumptions are some points form the lecture handout of Theories of Counseling.
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Reality Therapy
Based on Choice Theory
Key Terms
Autonomy- state of accepting responsibility and taking control of self (life)
Commitment- not skewing from the plan for change
Choice Theory- humans are internally motivated and have a purpose to control
behaviors; humans are self-determined and create own destiny (all elements of
behavior are interrelated)
Cycle of Counseling- any means to create a positive environment in counseling,
based on personal involvement and procedures for change to occur
Involvement- counselor’s interest in and caring for clients
Paining Behaviors- people choose misery by developing symptoms (headaching,
depressing, anxietying) because at the time they seem to be the best behaviors to
execute for survival
Perceived World- the reality we experience and interpret
Psychological Needs- needs for belonging, power, freedom, and fun that drive
people and explain behaviors
Quality World- perceptions and images we have to fulfill our basic psychological
needs
Responsibility- satisfying personal needs while not interfering with people who
fulfill their needs
Self-Evaluation- clients’ assessment of current behaviors in order to determine if
their behaviors are working and if behaviors are meeting their needs
Total Behavior- integrated components of doing, thinking, feeling, and physiology
WDEP System- procedures that are applied to the practice of reality therapy
groups; strategies help clients identify their wants, determine direction behaviors
take them, self-evaluations, and designs plans for change
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Key Figures and Major Focus
William Glasser
Robert Wubbolding
Developed in 1950s-1960s
1970s-1980s Glasser taught control theory (people have choices for what they are
doing)
1996 Glasser revised control to choice theory
Choice theory is concerned with clientsphenomenological world
Individuals are responsible for what they do and choose their own destiny
Clients perceive and react to their world based on their internal locus of evaluation
(behaviors come from within)
Behaviors are purposeful and attempts to get what we want (close gap between
wants and perceptions of what they are getting)
Philosophy and Basic Assumptions
Humans are self-determining
Humans change when they determine their behavior is not getting them what they
want & when they believe they have choices of behaviors
People choose total behavior, hence responsible for acting, thinking, feeling, and
psychological states
Major Premise- behavior is aimed to satisfy needs for survival, love and belonging,
power, freedom, and fun
Focus- acting and thinking are chosen behaviors (changing acting and thinking
influences feelings and physiological states)
Choice theory explains how people attempt to control their world and teaches ways
to satisfy needs and wants in effective manners
Key Concepts
Behavior is a way to control our perceptions of the external world so they fit
internal and need-satisfying world
Humans develop a quality world (cognitive photo album) of wants
Core principle- people have choices no matter the circumstances
Emphasis- assuming responsibility and dealing with the present
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Therapeutic Goals
Overall goal- assist clients to better meet their needs for love, belonging, survival,
power, freedom, and fun
Help clients gain psychological strength, accept personal responsibility, regain
control of lives
Challenge clients to examine what they are doing, thinking, and feeling
Teach client to self-evaluate behaviors and determine what they want to change
Personal growth, Improvement, Enhanced lifestyle, Decision making
Therapeutic Relationship
Counselors are involved with clients from outset and create warm, supportive, and
challenging relationship (clients must know that counselors are for them)
Involvement with and concern for are conveyed throughout the counseling process
Once trust is established, counselors confront clients with reality and consequences
of their actions
Counselors avoid: criticism, accepting excuses, and giving up on clients
Assist clients to continually assess effectiveness and appropriateness of their
behaviors
Techniques and Procedures
Reality therapy is a cycle of counseling (counseling environment & procedures for
behavior change)
W= wants, explore wants, needs and perceptions
D= direction and doing, focus on what clients are doing and the direction they are
headed
E= evaluation, challenge clients to evaluate their total behavior (continual basis)
P= planning and commitment, assist in the formulation of realistic plans and
making commitment to carry out plans
Applications
Youth offenders (detention facilities)
Variety of behavioral problems
Individual and group counseling & marital and family counseling
Military
Drug and alcohol clinics
Teaching and administration
Social work, Crisis intervention, & Management and community development
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Contributions
Short-term approach with wide range of clients
Structure for clients and counselors
Simple and clear concepts, can be used by parents, teachers, ministers, managers,
consultants, supervisors, counselors and social workers
Positive, action-oriented approach
Accepting personal responsibility and gaining effective control
People take charge of their lives
Focus for what clients are willing to do in the present
Contributions to Multicultural Counseling
Respect difference in worldviews and cultural values
Explore how behaviors affect themselves and others
Skillful questioning will help asses how ethnic minorities have acculturated
(integration of society)
Relationships are the problems in all cultures
Wubbolding worked with several cultures in different countries (known for work
with people in Japan)
Counselors need to be artful and skillful in their work
Short-term counseling
Limitations
Rejects: medical model, past, exploration of dreams, dwelling on feelings or
insight, transference, and unconscious
Direct questioning needs to be softened when working with ethnic minorities
At times choice is not an option, discrimination and racism are reality
Minority clients may be hesitant to state what they need
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