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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
After studying this chapter, students should be able to understand the following:
A. Explain Learning
B. Define Training
We devote this lecture to explaining the learning and its importance in improving status of organization; we will
also explore scope of Training and its relationship to organizational change. Next, the Training process is
described along with how Training needs are determined and objectives established. Then, we look at the
numerous Training methods. Effectiveness of training program depends upon the learning of trainees so first of
all we should see what is meant by learning.
Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that results from direct or indirect experience.
• Learning organization
Learning organizations are firms that recognize the critical importance of continuous performance-related.
Training takes appropriate action. They are one whose employees continuously attempt to learn new things & to
use what they learn to improve product or service quality. The most important thing in learning is that all
managers should understand the basic purposes and processes of both Training also recognize the role of
learning theory in Training.
B. Training Defined:
The heart of a continuous effort designed to improve employee competency and organizational performance.
Training typically focuses on providing employees with specific skills or helping them correct deficiencies in
I. Challenges in Training
Upgrading employees' performance and improving their skills through training is a necessity in today's
competitive environment. The training process brings with it many questions that managers must answer.
Included in these questions are: Is training the solution to the problems? Are the goals of training clear and
realistic? Is training a good investment? Will the training work?
• Is Training the Solution?
• Are the Goals Clear and Realistic?
• Is Training a Good Investment?
• Will Training Work?
II. The Training Process
Adjustments in external and internal environments
necessitate change. Once the need for change is
recognized and the factors that influence intervention are
considered, the process of determining Training needs
begins. Essentially, two questions must be asked: “What
are our Training needs?” and “What do we want to
accomplish through our TRAINING efforts?” After
stating the TRAINING objectives, management can
determine the appropriate methods for accomplishing
them. Various methods and media are available; the
selection depends on the nature of TRAINING goals.
Naturally, TRAINING must be continuously evaluated in
order to facilitate change and accomplish organizational
objectives. Now we will discuss different phases of
The Training Process
Needs Assessment Phase
Development and Conduct
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Phases of Training:
a. Phase 1: Needs Assessment & Establishing Objectives
In order to compete effectively, firms must keep their employees well trained. The first step in the Training
process is to determine Training needs. The overall purpose of the assessment phase is to determine if training is
needed and, if so, to provide the information required to design the training program. Assessment consists of
three levels of analysis: organizational, task, and person.
Organizational Analysis: It is an examination of the kinds of problems that an organization is experiencing
and where they are located within organization.
Task/Operational Analysis: An operational analysis identifies the kinds of the skills and behaviors required of
the incumbents of a given job and the standards of performance that must be met.
Personal Analysis: The objective of the personnel analysis is to examine how well individual employees are
performing their jobs. Training should be given to those who need it. Assigning all employees to a training
program, regardless of their skill levels, is a waste of organizational resources and create a unpleasant situation
for employees who do not need training.
The objectives of training must be clarified, related to the areas identified in the task analysis, and should be
challenging, precise, achievable, and understood by all.
Mostly when there is a performance gap i.e. the performance is not up to the specified standards training is
required to improve the performance there are certain factors that should be kept in mind before conducting
training ,lets consider these factors:
• Number of employees experiencing skill deficiency: Number of employees supposed to be trained.
• Severity of skill deficiency: What are the cons or advantages that are being faced by the organization
due to absence of that skill?
• Importance of skill: How important is skill to be possessed by workforce.
• Extent to which skill can be improved with Training: Would there be real difference in skill level in
case the training program is conducted.
Determining Training Needs:
Following sources can help organization to assess either there is a need for Training or not.
z Company records
z Customer complaints
z New Technology
z Employee grievances
z Interviews with managers
z Customer satisfaction surveys
Establishing Training Objectives
Objectives are desired end results. In human resource, clear and concise objectives must be formulated
b. Phase 2: Delivering the Training
The training program that results from assessment should be a direct response to an organizational problem or
need. Approaches vary by location, presentation, and type. These are summarized below:
1. Location Options
a. On the job: Training is at the actual work site using the actual work equipment
b. Off the job: Training away from the actual work site. Training is at a Training facility designed specifically for
Human Resource Management (MGT501) VU
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c. Phase 3: Training Methods
The Lecture is an efficient means of transmitting large amounts of factual information to a relatively large
number of people at the same time. It is traditional method of teaching and is used in many training programs. A
skilled lecture can organize material and present it in a clear and understandable way. How ever a lecture doesn’t
allow active participation by learners.
• Case method
A Training method in which trainees are expected to study the information provided in the case and make
decisions based on it.
Simulators are training devices of varying degrees of complexity that duplicate the real world. Simulation refers
to creating an artificial learning environment that approximates the actual job conditions as much as possible.
This type of training refers to the process of having new worker, called an apprentice, work alongside and under
the direction of skilled technician.
Internships and assistantships provide training similar to apprenticeship training; however’ assistantships and
internships typically refer to occupations that require a higher level of the formal education than that required by
the skilled trades. Many colleges and universities used to develop agreements with organizations to provide
internships opportunities for students.
• Coaching And Mentoring
Some organizations assign an experienced to serve as a mentor for new employees. Effective mentors teach their
protégés job skills, provide emotional support and encouragement. Coaching and mentoring are primarily on-
the-job development approaches emphasizing learning on a one-to-one basis. Coaching is often considered a
responsibility of the immediate boss who has greater experience or expertise and is in the position to offer sage
advice. The same is true with a mentor, but this person may be located elsewhere in the organization or even in
another firm. The relationship may be established formally or it may develop on an informal basis.
Conferences and group discussions, used extensively for making decisions, can also be used as a form of training
because they provide forums where individuals are able to learn from one another. A major use of the group
discussion is to change attitudes and behaviors.
Simulations that represent actual business situations are referred to as business games. These simulations attempt
to duplicate selected parts of a particular situation, which are then manipulated by the participants
• Role playing
A Training method in which participants are required to respond to specific problems they may actually
encounter in their jobs.
Computer based training is a teaching method that takes advantage of the speed, memory, and data
manipulation capabilities of the computer for greater flexibility of instruction.
Multimedia is an application that enhances computer-based learning with audio, animation, graphics, and
• Virtual reality
It is a unique computer-based approach that permits trainees to view objects from a perspective otherwise
impractical or impossible.
• Video Training
The use of videotapes continues to be a popular Training method. An illustration of the use of videotapes is
provided by behavior modeling. Behavior modeling has long been a successful Training approach that utilizes
videotapes to illustrate effective interpersonal skills and how managers function in various situations.
• Vestibule training
Training that takes place away from the production area on equipment that closely resembles the actual
equipment used on the job. Effective training programs are effective only if the trainers re able to effectively
transfer to required knowledge to trainees but there are certain reasons due to which training programs
transferring becomes ineffective. The reasons re as under:
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Why Transfer of Training Fails?
• Don’t learn material
• Don’t understand “real life” applications
• Lack of confidence
• Forgetting the material
d. Phase 4:Evaluating Training
The credibility of training is greatly enhanced when it can be shown that the organization has benefited tangibly
from such programs. Organizations have taken several approaches in attempting to determine the worth of
specific programs. In this phase, the effectiveness of the training is assessed. Effectiveness can be measured in
monetary or non-monetary terms. It is important that the training be assessed on how well it addresses the
needs it was designed to address.
• Participants’ Opinions: Evaluating a training program by asking the participants’ opinions of it is an
inexpensive approach that provides an immediate response and suggestions for improvements. The
basic problem with this type of evaluation is that it is based on opinion rather than fact. In reality, the
trainee may have learned nothing, but perceived that a learning experience occurred.
• Extent of Learning: Some organizations administer tests to determine what the participants in training
program have learned. The pretest, posttest, control group design is one evaluation procedure that may
• Behavioral Change: Tests may indicate fairly accurately what has been learned, but they give little
insight into desired behavioral changes.
• Accomplishment of Training Objectives: Still another approach to evaluating training programs
involves determining the extent to which stated objectives have been achieved.
Benchmarking utilizes exemplary practices of other organizations to evaluate and improve training programs. It
is estimated that up to 70 percent of American firms engage in some sort of benchmarking.
• A Case for Simplicity: Value is the measure of impact and positive change elicited by the training.
The most common approaches used to determine the effectiveness of training programs are as under:
Post Training Performance Method:
In this method the participants’ performance is measured after attending a training program to determine if
behavioral changes have been made.
Pre-Post Test approach:
Most commonly used approach towards measurement of effectiveness of training is Pretest Post test approach
this approach performances the employees is measured prior to training and if required training is provided.
After completion if the training again the performance is measured this is compared with performance before
training if evaluation is positive e.g. increase in productivity that means that training is effective.
Pre- Post Training Performance with control group Method:
Under this evaluation method, two groups are established and evaluated on actual job performance. Members of
the control group work on the job but do not undergo instructions. On the other hand, the experimental group
is given the instructions. At the conclusion of the training, the two groups are reevaluated. If the training is really
effective, the experimental group’s performance will have improved, and its performance will be substantially
better than that of the control group.