Human Resource Management (MGT501) VU
Copyright © Virtual University of Pakistan 95
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
After studying this chapter, students should be able to understand the following:
A. Explain Learning
B. Define Training
We devote this lecture to explaining the learning and its importance in improving status of organization; we will
also explore scope of Training and its relationship to organizational change. Next, the Training process is
described along with how Training needs are determined and objectives established. Then, we look at the
numerous Training methods. Effectiveness of training program depends upon the learning of trainees so first of
all we should see what is meant by learning.
Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that results from direct or indirect experience.
• Learning organization
Learning organizations are firms that recognize the critical importance of continuous performance-related.
Training takes appropriate action. They are one whose employees continuously attempt to learn new things & to
use what they learn to improve product or service quality. The most important thing in learning is that all
managers should understand the basic purposes and processes of both Training also recognize the role of
learning theory in Training.
B. Training Defined:
The heart of a continuous effort designed to improve employee competency and organizational performance.
Training typically focuses on providing employees with specific skills or helping them correct deficiencies in
I. Challenges in Training
Upgrading employees' performance and improving their skills through training is a necessity in today's
competitive environment. The training process brings with it many questions that managers must answer.
Included in these questions are: Is training the solution to the problems? Are the goals of training clear and
realistic? Is training a good investment? Will the training work?
• Is Training the Solution?
• Are the Goals Clear and Realistic?
• Is Training a Good Investment?
• Will Training Work?
II. The Training Process
Adjustments in external and internal environments
necessitate change. Once the need for change is
recognized and the factors that influence intervention are
considered, the process of determining Training needs
begins. Essentially, two questions must be asked: “What
are our Training needs?” and “What do we want to
accomplish through our TRAINING efforts?” After
stating the TRAINING objectives, management can
determine the appropriate methods for accomplishing
them. Various methods and media are available; the
selection depends on the nature of TRAINING goals.
Naturally, TRAINING must be continuously evaluated in
order to facilitate change and accomplish organizational
objectives. Now we will discuss different phases of
The Training Process
Needs Assessment Phase
Development and Conduct
Human Resource Management (MGT501) VU
Copyright © Virtual University of Pakistan 96
Phases of Training:
a. Phase 1: Needs Assessment & Establishing Objectives
In order to compete effectively, firms must keep their employees well trained. The first step in the Training
process is to determine Training needs. The overall purpose of the assessment phase is to determine if training is
needed and, if so, to provide the information required to design the training program. Assessment consists of
three levels of analysis: organizational, task, and person.
Organizational Analysis: It is an examination of the kinds of problems that an organization is experiencing
and where they are located within organization.
Task/Operational Analysis: An operational analysis identifies the kinds of the skills and behaviors required of
the incumbents of a given job and the standards of performance that must be met.
Personal Analysis: The objective of the personnel analysis is to examine how well individual employees are
performing their jobs. Training should be given to those who need it. Assigning all employees to a training
program, regardless of their skill levels, is a waste of organizational resources and create a unpleasant situation
for employees who do not need training.
The objectives of training must be clarified, related to the areas identified in the task analysis, and should be
challenging, precise, achievable, and understood by all.
Mostly when there is a performance gap i.e. the performance is not up to the specified standards training is
required to improve the performance there are certain factors that should be kept in mind before conducting
training ,lets consider these factors:
• Number of employees experiencing skill deficiency: Number of employees supposed to be trained.
• Severity of skill deficiency: What are the cons or advantages that are being faced by the organization
due to absence of that skill?
• Importance of skill: How important is skill to be possessed by workforce.
• Extent to which skill can be improved with Training: Would there be real difference in skill level in
case the training program is conducted.
Determining Training Needs:
Following sources can help organization to assess either there is a need for Training or not.
z Company records
z Customer complaints
z New Technology
z Employee grievances
z Interviews with managers
z Customer satisfaction surveys
Establishing Training Objectives
Objectives are desired end results. In human resource, clear and concise objectives must be formulated
b. Phase 2: Delivering the Training
The training program that results from assessment should be a direct response to an organizational problem or
need. Approaches vary by location, presentation, and type. These are summarized below:
1. Location Options
a. On the job: Training is at the actual work site using the actual work equipment
b. Off the job: Training away from the actual work site. Training is at a Training facility designed specifically for