Types of Asexual Propagation - Horticulture - Lecture Slides, Slides for Biology. Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswa Vidyalaya

Biology

Description: These are the lecture slides of Horticulture and key important points are: Types of Asexual Propagation, Tissue Culture, Grafting, Parts of Graft, Single Composite Plant, Influence Winter Hardiness, Success of Grafts Depends, Vascular Cambium, Graft Union Formation
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• Major types of asexual propagation: – Division – Cuttings – Layering – Grafting – Budding – Micropropagation (tissue culture)

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• Grafting = joining together of plant parts so they grow as a single composite plant

Asexual propagation

– Two parts of graft • Scion = short piece of stem with several dormant buds

• Stock = lower portion (stem and/or roots of another plant) – Stock chosen because:

» Control size of overall plant

– Scion generally from the desired cultivar

» Influence the time to fruit maturity » Influence winter hardiness » Offer disease or stress resistance

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• Success of grafts depends on:

Asexual propagation

– Correct seasonal timing of graft – Maintaining high humidity at graft union – Selecting closely related plants to graft – Lining up vascular cambium of scion with vascular

cambium of stock • Requires ‘clean’ cut of scion and stock • Grafting cannot be done with monocots because they

have scattered, rather than regular vascular bundles

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• Success of grafts depends on contact between vascular cambiums of scion and stock

Asexual propagation

– vascular cambium = layer between bark and inner wood of dicot stem

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• Stages of graft union formation:

Asexual propagation

– Vascular cambiums of scion and stock lined up close together

– Callus tissue is produced by parenchyma cells internal to the cut on scion and stock

– Callus tissue of scion and stock ‘intermingle’ to fill space between scion and stock (callus bridge)

– Callus cells differentiate into new vascular cambium in the graft union

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• Examples of grafting techniques:

Asexual propagation

– Splice graft

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• Examples of grafting techniques:

Asexual propagation

– Saddle graft

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• Examples of grafting techniques:

Asexual propagation

– Cleft graph

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• Budding = type of grafting that uses a single bud as the scion

Asexual propagation

– Easier, less expensive, faster than grafting

– Often involves inserting a bud into an opening in bark of stock

– Requires an actively growing stock (Spring-Fall)

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• Basic steps involved in budding:

Asexual propagation

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• Micropropagation = multiplication of plants in vitro (i.e. in glass)

Asexual propagation

– Often called plant tissue culture (aseptic culture) – Used to propagate genetically engineered plants – Also used to purify virus-infected parental stocks – Basic steps of micropropagation:

• Produce small pieces of plant (= explant) • Place explant into growing medium (nutrients, plant

growth chemicals and agar)

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• Basic Steps of Micropropagation

Asexual propagation

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