Alimentary Canal, Nutrition - Biology - Lecture Slides, Slides for Biology. Aligarh Muslim University


Description: These are the lecture slides of Biology. Key important points are: Alimentary Canal, Nutrition, Carbohydrates, Proteins and Fats, Amino Acids, Starch Molecules, Growth and Repair of Cells, Mechanical Digestion, Chemical Digestion, Parts of Alimentary Canal
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Alimentary Canal

The Alimentary Canal

Standard Grade Biology

Can you sort out the statements into True and False?

Carbohydrates, proteins and fats are all made up of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen.

Starch is a large carbohydrate molecule

Fats are made up of smaller units called amino acids

Proteins are made up of one or more glucose molecules Starch molecules can be broken down by

amylase. Proteins are important for the growth and repair of cells

Can you name the 2 different ways we breakdown food in our bodies?

1. Mechanical Digestion -teeth

2. Chemical Digestion -enzymes -bile -stomach acid

1. Parts of The Alimentary Canal

The alimentary canal (or gut) is the tube within the body through which food passes and is processed in various ways

2. Role of the Mouth

Salivary gland

Salivary gland

Salivary gland

Saliva is mixed with food during chewing

Teeth assist the mechanical breakdown of food

Saliva contains the enzyme amylase which starts the digestion of food

Saliva contains mucus that keeps the mouth moist and lubricates food for easier swallowing

3. Muscles of the Alimentary Canal

• Food has to be kept moving along the alimentary canal whilst being mixed with various juices

• These actions are brought about by muscles in the walls of the canal over which a person has little or no conscious control

3. Peristalsis

The squeezing action of muscles that is used to move food along the alimentary canal

Digestive Enzymes

• What do the following enzymes breakdown? • What do they break the large moleculs down


• Amlyases • Lipases • Proteases


‘the breakdown of large insoluble molecules into soluble molecules’

Digestion and Digestive Juices





Sites of production of main digestive juices

Site of digestive juice production

Main digestive juice produced

Mouth Saliva

Stomach Gastric juice

Liver Bile (breaks down big fat droplets into little fat droplets

Pancreas Pancreatic juice

Small Intestine Intestinal juice

Digestion and Digestive Juices


Salivary amylase


Pancreatic lipase


Hydrochloric acid

Pepsin (protease)



In the Mouth…

Starch maltose • Broken down into glucose later by other


Salivary amylase

In the stomach

Protein peptides Broken down into amino acids later by other



In the pancreas….

Fats fatty acids and glycerol Pancreatic lipase

After all the digestive enzymes have done their work…

• Glucose

• Amino acids

• Fatty acids

• Glycerol

Finish the sentence….

• Something new I learnt today was…..

• Something I found difficult to understand was…

• The thing I need to revise from today’s lesson is…

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