Engineering Education and Professions - Introduction to Engineering - Lecture Slides, Slides for Engineering Economics. Punjab Engineering College

Engineering Economics

Description: The main points are:Engineering Education and Professions, Profile of Engineering, Educational Trends, Common Students’ Mistakes, Trend of Increasing Enrollment, Present Employment, Bachelor Degrees, Career Expectations, Job Location
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Ergonomists, Designers and Manufacturing Engineers: Seeing Eye to Eye

Profile of an Engineering Education and Professions


Describe the educational trends in engineering, such as, enrollment rates and the number of earned bachelor degrees. Describe the current and future state of

engineering employment. Explain factors that influence undergraduate

academic performance. Describe the steps you can take to have a

successful undergraduate career and to prepare for your professional career.

Profile of an Engineering Education and Professions

Getting informed is important since you need to: – Determine if you wish to pursue a career in

engineering. – Make a more informed decision when choosing

your major. – Take necessary steps towards a successful

engineering career.

Engineering Education and the Profession of Engineering

Common students’ mistakes: – Enter University with little knowledge of

University expectations. – Lacking sufficient information about career

opportunities. – Complete their degree without the necessary

tools and experience needed to compete in the job market.

Educational Trends

The number of High School graduates is the most important factor influencing the engineering programs’ enrollment. 63% of the High School graduating class of

2000 was enrolled in colleges. 67% is the record high in 1997.

Educational Trends

High School graduating classes of 2000 going to college: 64% of the white, 56.2% of the black, and 53% of the Hispanic. The trend of increasing enrollment by

underrepresented minorities has persisted annually (1990-1996). – 3% - Black – 7.7% - Hispanic – 8% - Asian/ Pacific Islanders

 National Science Board (NSB), Science and Engineering Indicators –2000, National Science Board.

Educational Trends

Engineering enrollment in 2002:

– 14.8% Underrepresented minorities (approx. 30% of the population were

underrepresented minorities). – 18.5% Female students (approx. 50% of population were female).

Engineering enrollment decreased between 1983-1996.

Educational Trends

48% of Whites, 47% of Asians, 34% of Blacks, and 32% of Hispanics who entered a bachelor’s degree program in 1989 had earned their degree by Spring 1994.

37% of both Black and Hispanic students, compared with 27% of White students and 26% of Asian students, had earned no degree and were no longer enrolled toward a bachelor’s degree after 5 years.

 “Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering” report by the National Science Foundation.

Educational Trends

Bachelor degrees earned by women -2001: – 48% in math. – 27.6% in computer science. – 20.2% in engineering.

Males showed a decline in bachelor degrees in all engineering fields in the 1990’s.

Present Employment

To better understand your career expectations, it is useful to determine the present state of engineering with respect to employment. For example, in 1997:

– For profit companies employed 73% of B.S. recipients and 60% of M.S. recipients.

– 49% of doctorates were employed in academia. – Women composed 23% of the S&E Workforce.

Present Employment

In 2000, Asians composed 14% of S&E population

(represent 4% of US population). Blacks composed 4.4% of S&E population

(represent 12% of US population). Hispanics composed 3.4% of S&E population

(represent 11% of US population). American Indians composed .3% of S&E

population (represent 1% of US population).

Employment in Science and Engineering (1998-2008)

Employment for all engineering

occupations is expected to increase by an average of approx. 20%. – 26% - Electrical Engineering – 21% - Civil Engineering – 16% - Mechanical Engineering

 National Science Board (NSB), Science and Engineering Indicators –2000, National Science Board.


Think in long term about career expectations, including career goal, salary, job location, healthcare, time with family, and retirement. Salary is only one factor in the equation. Controllable variables include education,

experience, location, and job function. Non-controllable variables include the variance of

supply and demand for engineers.

Factors that Influence Undergraduate Performance

Pre-College Academic Preparation

– One of the most common reasons for students to drop out of college.

– Studies show that only 6% of minority students graduate from High School with the math- science background essential to enroll in engineering programs.

Factors that Influence Undergraduate Performance

Financial Aid – Among the most common reasons for students

to drop out of college. – A varied financial aid package proves to be

more effective than financial assistance consisting mainly of loans.

Factors that Influence Undergraduate Performance

Full-Time Employment – Research shows that students employed full-

time take fewer courses per semester, which leads to a greater probability of dropout.

– These students may have less of a commitment to their academic studies than a full-time college student.

Factors that Influence Undergraduate Performance

First Year Academic Performance – Research shows that a student’s first year

academic performance has an impact on retention.

– Students who earned a “B” average or better after their first college term were more likely to stay in school compared to students who earned an average of “C” or below.

Factors that Influence Undergraduate Performance

First Generation College Students

– These students have higher attrition rates. – Usually less informed about the process

toward college preparation, expectations, and achievement.

Factors that Influence Undergraduate Performance

Involvement in Campus Activities

– Research confirms that involvement strongly correlates with student retention.

– Allows the student to focus more in school and have fewer societal pressures outside school.

Preparing for a Successful Undergraduate Education

It is important for engineering students to become proactive in their own educational process. You can help increase your success in your

undergraduate engineering education. Informational Activities

– Learn about the undergraduate college life. – Participate in campus activities, internships/jobs,

summer programs, financial aid fairs. – Seek academic/curriculum advise.

Preparing for a Successful Undergraduate Education

Financial Aid & Scholarships, Advising – Learn about the different financial aid packages

available to you including federal and state grants, loans, privately funded scholarships, work-study programs, etc…

– Many large companies offer scholarships based on academic performance.

– Advisors are a valuable source for information for classes, scholarships, and internships.

Preparing for a Successful Undergraduate Education

Professional Opportunities

– Participate in professional societies. – Attend student conferences and workshops. – Attend to short courses and new classes. – Participate in research and development


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