Group Performance - Managing Organizational Behavior - Lecture Slides, Slides for Organizational Behaviour. Allahabad University

Organizational Behaviour

Description: Positive and Negative, Types of Interdependence, Group Performance, Social Facilitation, Process Loss, Social Loafing, Motivation Loss, Dealing With Social Loafing, Other Issues. This lecture is from Organizational Behavior course. Some slides titles and other key words are given above.
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Group performance and development

Recap

 Types of interdependence  Fate

 Task  Positive and negative

 Group performance  Social facilitation

 Process loss

 Social loafing/motivation loss

Goals

 Dealing with social loafing

 Other issues in group performance – which types of tasks are groups good

at?

 How do groups change over time?

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Social loafing

 Reasons for social loafing

 Equity – matching your partners’ effort

 Anonymity of performance

 Identifiable performance

 Evaluation apprehension

 Matching to standards

Reducing social loafing

 Make performance identifiable,

knowingly evaluated

 Give specific expectations for

 General standards of performance

 Teammates’ expected performance

 Increase personal involvement in task

 Improve group efficacy beliefs

Task type and group performance

 Groups not equally effective at all

tasks

 Tasks involving facts, right/wrong

answers vs. creative tasks

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Decision-making performance

 Collective knowledge gains may

outweigh process loss, motivation losses

 Shared mental models – similarity in

perceptions of goals, tasks, capabilities

 Transactive memory systems – pieces

of knowledge/know-how distributed

across individuals

Creative tasks

 Example of creative tasks

 Brainstorming, ‘divergent thinking’ tasks

 Big losses due to

 Blocking (kind of process loss)

 Conformity pressures

Creative tasks

 Factors affecting performance on creative tasks  Group composition

 Diverse vs. homogenous groups

 Acceptance, encouragement of dissenting opinions

 Communication medium  Face to face vs. computer-mediated

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Group development

 Cohesion

 How tight are the social bonds in a

group?

 How does it develop over time?

 How does it affect performance?

Group development

 Stage models of group development  Groups go through specific sequential stages of

development

 Tuckman (1965)  Orientation (forming)

 Conflict (storming)

 Structure (norming)

 Work (performing)

 Dissolution (adjourning)

Orientation stage

 Guarded interactions, tension,

monitoring of self and others

 Forming opinions, inferences about

others

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Conflict

 Conflict over group goals, procedures,

individual roles, status

 Leader-member conflict

 Conflict may be healthy

 Better understanding of other group

members’ perspectives

 Forces group to clarify, consider goals;

come to a consensus

Structure

 Develop clear norms of behavior, roles

 Engage in task planning

Work stage

 Focus on actually performing the task

 Not all groups reach this stage!

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Dissolution

 Planned dissolution

 Spontaneous (unplanned) dissolution

Cyclical models of group development

 No clear sequence of stages – groups

go back and forth based on demands of task, external environment

 Bales’ equilibrium model

 Groups try to maintain a balance

between social needs and task needs

Effects of cohesion

 Positive outcomes  Greater performance!

 Higher satisfaction

 Lower stress, anxiety

 Negative outcomes  Pressure for conformity

 Avoidance of dissent, conflict

 Negative behaviors directed towards dissenters

 Ostracizing

 Aggression

 Scapegoating

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Group performance and development

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