Hierarchical - Sociological Imagination - Lecture Slides, Slides for Sociology. Ambedkar University, Delhi
sangem
sangem29 December 2012

Hierarchical - Sociological Imagination - Lecture Slides, Slides for Sociology. Ambedkar University, Delhi

PDF (1 MB)
35 pages
723Number of visits
Description
Hierarchical, Social Stratification, Property, Closed Stratification Systems, Slavery and Castes, Social Position, Slavery, Chattel Slavery, Domestic Slavery, Discussion are some points from this lecture.
20points
Download points needed to download
this document
Download the document
Preview3 pages / 35
This is only a preview
3 shown on 35 pages
Download the document
This is only a preview
3 shown on 35 pages
Download the document
This is only a preview
3 shown on 35 pages
Download the document
This is only a preview
3 shown on 35 pages
Download the document
CHAPTER 4:

CHAPTER 8:

SOCIAL STRATIFICATION

docsity.com

WHAT IS SOCIAL STRATIFICATION?

• A hierarchical ranking of people who have different access to valued resources

• Property, prestige, power, and status

1 docsity.com

Closed Stratification Systems

• Movement from one social position to another is limited due to ascribed statuses.

• Slavery and castes are closed systems.

1 docsity.com

• In slavery, some people own others and have control over their lives – In chattel slavery people are bought and

sold as commodities. – In domestic slavery employers force

people to work for long hours and little if any pay.

1

Slavery

docsity.com

Discussion How is it possible for employers to enslave

workers, even in the United States?

1 docsity.com

• In caste systems, social categories are based on heredity.

• India is the classic example. • Indian castes

Brahmins—priests and scholars – Kshatriyas—kings and warriors – Vaishyas—merchants and farmers – Shudras—peasants and laborers

1

Caste Systems

docsity.com

Dalits—untouchables – Outside the caste system – Poor – Performed the most menial tasks – Were considered "polluting"

• Caste system was outlawed in 1949. • Social distinctions persist.

1

Caste Systems

docsity.com

Open Stratification Systems

• Social classes are relatively fluid. • Based on achieved statuses. • A social class is a category of people

who have a similar rank based on wealth, education, power, or prestige.

1 1 docsity.com

Discussion To what extent is mobility possible in the

United States?

docsity.com

DIMENSIONS OF STRATIFICATION

Wealth—money and economic assets – Includes property and income

2

– Wealth is cumulative, passed on to the next generation, and produces income. – Income inequality is increasing in the

docsity.com

docsity.com

Prestige—respect, recognition, or regard – Based on wealth, family background, fame,

occupation, and leadership – Prestigious occupations require education,

pay more, involve mental activity, and offer autonomy

2

Prestige

docsity.com

2 docsity.com

Power—the ability of individuals to achieve goals, control events, and maintain influence over others despite opposition – Power elite—a small group of white men

who make the important decisions in U.S. society

2

Power

docsity.com

Application • What happens when statuses are

inconsistent? • What are some examples of status

inconsistency? • What problems are associated with status

inconsistency?

docsity.com

SOCIAL CLASS IN AMERICA

Socioeconomic status (SES)—an overall rank of people's positions based on their income, education, and occupation

3 docsity.com

Upper Classes

Upper-upper class—enormous wealth, inherited fortunes, considerable economic and political power

Lower-upper classnouveau riche, engage in conspicuous consumption

Upper-middle class—live on earned income, professional and managerial occupations

3 docsity.com

Middle Classes

Lower-middle class—non- manual, semiprofessional occupations, rely on two incomes, maintain comfortable lifestyle

Working class—skilled and semiskilled laborers, possess high school education

3 docsity.com

Lower Classes

Working poor—work at least 27 weeks a year but live in poverty

Underclass—persistently poor, segregated residentially, relatively isolated, chronically unemployed, lack skills and education

3 docsity.com

Application Identify the class of each example:

– Maria is a dental technician working in a large clinic.

– Kevin dropped out of high school, works in agriculture only in the summer, has trouble making ends meet.

– William inherited family wealth, attended private schools, and became a politician.

docsity.com

POVERTY IN AMERICA

• Poverty is increasing. • 37 million people live in poverty in the U.S.

4 docsity.com

Absolute poverty—not having enough money to afford the most basic necessities

Relative poverty—not having enough money to maintain an average standard of living

4

Types of Poverty

docsity.com

Poverty line—the minimal level of income that the federal government considers necessary for basic subsistence

• In 2006, the poverty line was $20,444 for a family of four.

4

Poverty Line

docsity.com

Who are the poor?

• Children • Women • African Americans, American Indians, and

Latinos

4 docsity.com

Why are people poor?

Culture of poverty view—The poor share values, beliefs, and attitudes that are different from the non-poor.

Functional view—Society creates and sustains poverty.

4 docsity.com

SOCIAL MOBILITY

Social mobility—movement in the stratification hierarchy – Horizontal mobility—moving from one

position to another at the same level – Vertical mobility—moving up or down the

stratification ladder

5 docsity.com

Application Identify the type of mobility for each

example: – Cameron graduated from college, left welfare,

and secured a semiprofessional position. – Tom left his job in the factory to work in

maintenance at the college. – Cecelia grew up with a mother who worked

cleaning motels, but Cecelia is a doctor.

docsity.com

What affects mobility? • Structural factors: changes in the

economy, the number of available positions, immigration

Demographic factors: education, gender, race and ethnicity

Individual factors: family background, socialization, connections and change

5 docsity.com

WHY ARE THERE HAVES AND HAVE-NOTS?

• The Functionalist Perspective – Stratification benefits society. – The Davis-Moore Thesis—Stratification

ensures that important jobs are filled with the most qualified people.

6 docsity.com

• The Conflict Perspective—Stratification hurts society. – Capitalism pits the bourgeoisie and

proletariat against each other. – Corporate welfare subsidizes business

rather than workers.

6

Conflict Theory

docsity.com

• The Feminist Perspective—Women are almost always at the bottom. – Patriarchy benefits most men. – Men control a disproportionate share of

wealth, prestige, and power.

6

Feminist Theories

docsity.com

• The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective—People create and share stratification. – People socialize their children to acquire and

use symbols.

6

Symbolic Interactionist

docsity.com

INEQUALITY ACROSS SOCIETIES

High-income countries have a developed industrial economy and an annual gross national income of almost $37,066 per person.

Middle-income countries have a developing industrial economy and a lower GNI per capita.

Low-income countries are the least industrialized and largely agricultural. 7

docsity.com

Why is inequality universal? • Modernization theory suggests that

low-income countries lack modern, progressive cultures.

Dependency theory contends that low- income countries are exploited and dominated by high-income countries.

7 docsity.com

Application • Identify the theory:

– Inequality ensures that important jobs are filled by the most talented.

– High-income countries set prices for raw materials and labor.

– Parents teach children the habits and attitudes of their social class.

docsity.com

comments (0)
no comments were posted
be the one to write the first!
This is only a preview
3 shown on 35 pages
Download the document