Information Processing - Human Development - Lecture Slides, Slides for Human Development. Himgiri Zee University

Human Development

Description: Information Processing, Processing Theories, Cognitive Rules, Development is Continuous, Problem Solvers, Mechanisms of Change, Evidence of Infant Memory, Mobile Task, Metamemory, Suggestibility of Child Memory. Above mentioned are either slide title of slide or any other important term described in this lecture of Human Development course.
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Developmental Psychology PSC 140 Summer Session 1

Information Processing


Information Processing Theories

• Brain = Hardware

• Cognitive rules and strategies = software


Information Processing Theories

• Brain = Hardware

• Cognitive rules and strategies = software

• Thinking = information processing


Characteristics of Information Processing Theories

• Development is Continuous

• Children are problem-solvers

• Child as computational system (a computer), a processor of information

• Thinking is a process that occurs over time


Information Processing Theories

• Mechanisms of Change

– Encoding

– Automatic Processing

– Processing Speed

– Strategy Construction

– Content Knowledge

– Self Modification


Information Processing


Summary of Information Processing Theories

• Child as Problem solver

• Thinking as a Process that occurs over time

• Computer as Metaphor

• Emphasis on Mechanisms of Change


Memory in Childhood

• Evidence of Infant Memory

• Metamemory

• Autobiographical Memory

• Child Eyewitness Testimony

Evidence of Infant Memory

• Pacifier Study of Infant Preferences (“Cat-in- the-Hat” study)

• Rovee-Collier’s Mobile Task with 2- & 3- month-olds

• Brain Development

Mobile Task

• Contingency Learning & Memory

– Carolyn Rovee-Collier

Baseline Kicking Rate Learning Phase (Measure Kicking)

Memory Assessment (Measure Kicking)

Information Processing


Evidence of Infant Memory

• Brain Development – Hippocampus & Amygdala

develop early (by 6 months)

– Frontal cortex develops into the 2nd year

– Hippocampus matures at 2 years

 Pacifier Study of Infant Preferences (“Cat-in-the- Hat” study)

 Rovee-Collier’s Mobile Task with 2- & 3-month- olds

Memory Improvement

Metamemory • Metacognition = thinking about thinking

– Thinking about thoughts, attention, intentions, knowledge, etc.

• Metamemory = thinking about memory – A subset of metacognition

– Includes coming up with or intentionally using or evaluating memory strategies


• Memory strategies (in order of development):

– Touching & handling objects to be remembered

– Rehearsal

– Organization

– Elaboration

Information Processing


Autobiographical Memory

• Contributing Factors

– Basic memory skills

– Language

– Parent-Child Conversation

• Cultural Differences

– Sense of Self

Infantile Amnesia

• Why do we have it?

– Do children < 3 lack the ability to form memories?

– Did those events happen too long ago (sheer passage of time)?

– Are early memories simply stored differently than later memories?

• Possible reasons:

– Earlier memories stored iconically, later memories stored in language

– Autobiographical memory not yet in place –no timeline or context in which to place it

Memory Development (Recap)

• Infants: – Need visual cues (Rovee-Collier’s mobile tasks)

– Have non-verbal memories (because they’re nonverbal)

• Young children – Can report memories (because they are verbal)

– Can remember things that happened a long time ago (6 months ago, 1 yr, 2 yrs, etc.)

– But their memories are very, very suggestible.

Suggestibility of Child Memory

• Kelly Michaels “We Care” Case

– Lots of “memories” were reported

– Problems with the interview process

– If you are interested in a summary of this case see hool

Information Processing


Suggestibility of Child Memory

• What kinds of experiments do psychologists use to establish how reliable or suggestible children really are?

Research on Child Suggestibility

• “The big yellow giraffe”

– Effects of repeated questioning

– Better by age 7/9

Research on Child Suggestibility

• “The big yellow giraffe”

• “The eye patch”

– Effects of the memorability of the event

– Don’t use this as a guide to memory until age 9 or 10.

Research on Child Suggestibility

• “The big yellow giraffe”

• “The eye patch”

• “That clumsy Sam Stone!”

– Effects of stereotyping

Information Processing


Research on Child Suggestibility

• How do we know that they’re suggestible? – “The big yellow giraffe” (effects of repeated

questioning) – “The eye patch” (paying attention to the memorability

of the event) – “That clumsy Sam Stone!” (stereotyping & suggestive


• But what do they actually remember? – “We made a mistake”

What have we learned from these (and other) studies?

• If you ask for a memory, children report accurately

• The problem: – They don’t give very much detail (need to prompt


– They are very suggestible (even more so than adults)

– Why are they suggestible?

• Memory trace is weaker

• Forget the source of memory

• Social demand

What have we learned from these (and other) studies?

• Application: Child eye witness testimony

– Need trained interviewers (no leading questions)

• Explain why you’re asking the same questions again

• Avoid repeated interviews

• The Risks:

– Jailing the wrong person and/or letting a guilty person go free

– Implanting a false memory in a child that is traumatic!

Decline and Stability

• Age-related memory declines are limited primarily to episodic memories

• Semantic memories and implicit memories are largely unaffected by age

Information Processing


Once upon a time

• Autobiographical memory

Pollyanna principle

– Recall of material that "fits" current self-view

– Particular periods of life are remembered more easily than others

Remembrances of Things Past

Information-Processing Deficits

• Inability to inhibit irrelevant information and thoughts declines

• Speed of processing declines

• Attention declines

• Less efficient retrieval methods

Biological Factors

• Brain and body deterioration

– Especially frontal lobes

– Some studies also show deterioration of hippocampus

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