Introduction to Sociology
BBA-L 01- 07/08/08
To facilitate the student to understand the meaning,
definition, and importance of sociology to provide basic
knowledge to clear the concept of sociology and its relevance
to the business studies.
1. Sociology is Social Physics. Auguste Comte
2. It is the Science of Society. W.G. Sumner
3. Sociology is the Science of Men interdependence.
4. Sociology is the Science of Social institutions.
5. Sociology is the study of Social Life.
Definition of Society
1) Society is the union itself, the organization, the sum of formal relations, in which association of individuals are found together.
2) A society is a collection of individuals united by certain relations or modes of behavior which mark them off from others who do not enter into these relations and who differ from them in behavior.
3) An abstract term that connotes the complex of interrelations that exit between and among the members of the group.
4) Society is an abstract system, pattern or organization. It is not a group of persons but the structure of their behaviors and relationships, and there is psychic element in these relationships.
5) Society is complex of forms or processes each of which is living and growing by interaction with the other, the whole being so unified that what takes place in one part affects all the rest the rest.
Scope and subject matter of Sociology
1) INDIVIDUAL & SOCIETY
2) SOCIAL INSTITUTATION
3) GROUP AND GROUP LIFE
5) SOCIAL PROBLEMS
7) SOCIAL STRATIFICATION
8) SOCIAL CHANGE
Scope and subject matter of Sociology
Specialistics or Formalistic School of Thought
According to the formalistic school the subject matter of
sociology consists of the forms of sociology
relationships. These sociologists wish to keep the
scope of sociology distinct from other social sciences.
They regard sociology as pure and independent.
As against the formal school the synthetic school seeks to
make sociology a synthesis of the social sciences or a general
science. Modern sociologists among them Durkheim,
Hobhouse and Sorokin subscribe is to this point of view.
According to this opinion, sociology is the science of science
and all the sciences are included in its scope.
Development of Sociology
I. Sociology is the youngest of the recognized Social Sciences.
II. Father of Sociology Auguste Comte in France coined the word “’Sociology’’ in his book “Positive Philosophy” published in 1838.
III. Herbert spencer in England developed theory of Social Evolution in his book “Principle of Sociology” in 1876.
IV. Lester F.Ward, an American, published his Dynamic Sociology in 1883, calling Social progress through intelligent social action which sociologist should guide.
V. A French man; E`mile Durkheim, gave the most notable early demonstration of Scientific Methodology in Sociology. In his book “Rules of Sociological Methods” published in 1897.
VI. Courses in Sociology appeared in many universities in the 1890s. The American Journal of Sociology began publication in 1895.
VII. American Sociological Society now the American Sociological Association was recognized in 1905.
Importance of Sociology
Importance for Individuals It is realized to an individual that “alone” he is nothing.
Importance for Society Sociology aware the people with the Social realities and values.
Importance at Global Level Sociology tries to inculcate the people that peaceful co-existence and status co is relevant and important for all nations.
Importance Business Professionals By providing in depth knowledge of Society the Sociology enables the Business Professionals to interact properly with individuals and organizations using the knowledge of the Social dynamics of the Society to expand the business opportunity.
Importance for Pakistan Sociology is important for Pakistan to create Social harmony and build national character.
Relationship of Sociology with Other
Sciences 1. Sociology and Economics
2. Sociology and Political Science
3. Sociology and Psychology
4. Sociology and Anthropology
5. Sociology and History
6. Sociology and Business Studies
Functions of Sociology I. Technical Function
II. Introductory Function
III. Informative Function
IV. Tolerative Function
V. Cultural Function
VI. Democratic Function
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