Introduction to Sociology Sociological-concepts-and-perspectives-Lecture Slides-Sociology, Slides for Sociology. Michigan State University (MI)


Description: Sociological Concepts, Theory, Social Theory, Perspectives in Sociology, Interactionlism, Functionalism, Conflict, Ibn Khaldun, Auguste Comte, EMILE D`URKHIUM, Theory of Laizezfare, HERBART SPENCER Sociology, Lecture Slides, Barbara A Anderson, Michigan State University (MI), United States of America (USA)
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Introduction to Sociology


Sociological Concepts and


BBA-L02- 13/8/08

Welcome Class


Today’s Objectives

 To clarify the theoretical frame of references in


 To discus about various Sociological theories and



Definitions of Theory

What is Theory?

• In general contexts the theory is Value or Speculation.

• In Social Sciences the term refers to a conceptual framework used to interpret or explain some aspect our every day existence ( Joe Feagin, 2003:18)

• Theory is a set of logically interrelated propositions and implications that follow from them. Which are used to explain some phenomenon, implication in any theory are a set of underlying assumptions and methods that rarely questioned a theoretical perspective. ( Johnson, 1995: 295)


Importance of Social Theory in


Social theories provide ideological and theoretical

support to research topics. Social theories provide an

ideological base to Social problems and phenomena.

It is accepted that without any proper sociological

theory it is difficult to conduct a social research

properly. It works like Blood in the body that

provides life and sustains it.


Perspectives in Sociology

1) What is Perspective?

A working set of assumptions is

called “ Perspective” an “approach” some

times a “Paradigm”.


Evolutionary Perspective in Brief

A) Interactionlism

Symbolic interactionists such as G.H.Mead and C.H.Cooley

concentrate upon this interaction between individuals and

groups. They note that peoples interact mainly through

symbols, which include signs, gestures, and most importantly

through written and spoken words. A word has no inherent

meanings. It is simply a noise, but it becomes a word when

peoples reach agreement that this noise carries a special

meaning. Thus “YES”, “NO”, “GO”, “COME”, and

thousands of other sounds became symbols is attached to

each. Although some meanings can be exchanged without

words, as all lovers know, most meanings are exchanged

through spoken or written words.


B) Functionalism

In this perspective a society is seen as an

organized network of cooperating groups operating in

a fairly orderly manner according to a set of rules and

values shared by most members. Society is a seen as a

stable system, with a tendency toward equilibrium,

that is a tendency to maintain a balanced,

harmoniously operating system. In the functionalist

perspective, with Talcott Parsons, Kingsley Davis,

Robert Merton as the most prominent spokesmen.



Karl Marx, C.Wright Mills, lewis Coser, Aron, Dahrendorf,

Chambliss, Collins are the main contributors of the Conflict


Conflict theorists see a society as held together through the

power of dominant groups or classes. They claim that the

“Shared Values” which functionalists see as the glue holding

society together do not really form a true consensus in which

the dominant groups or classes impose their values and rules

upon the rest of the peoples.


Pioneers Contributors in Sociology

1) IBN KHALDUN (1332-1406 Egypt)

a) Ethnocentrism

b) Effects of environment on Human Society

c) Nomadic and Urban Life

d) Ups and Downs of Nations

e) Cultural Science


Auguste Comte (1798-1857 France)

A) Sociology

1. Static Sociology

2. Dynamic Sociology

B) Status of Women


EMILE D`URKHIUM (1858-1917 France)

A. Sociology

B. Social Solidarity

C. Suicide

C.1) Egoistic Suicide

C.2) Anomique Suicide

C.3) Altristric Suicide




B. Folk ways

C. Mores

D. Theory of Laizezfare

E. Iner and Outer Groups



1. Sociology

2. Society

3. State


Thank You


Till Next Class

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