Modelling Business - E-Commerce - Lecture Slides, Slides for Fundamental of E-Commerce

Fundamental of E-Commerce

Description: E-Commerce is a growing and dynamic field. It is of special concern for the IT students. Following are the fundamental aspects of these Lecture Slides : Modelling Business, Business Technologies, Normative Models, High Detail, Flexibility, Development, Reduces Complexity, Data Flow Diagrams, Broad Descriptions, Programming
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Microsoft PowerPoint - Modelling Business [Compatibility Mode]

E-Business Technologies

Class 7: Modelling Business

Processes and Intro to E-commerce


• Glossary of terms – extra time to complete

• Only one more formal lecture after this point –

we'll fit in what we can, and make

determinations on test material by the end

• Today's stuff quite relevant to final project...


• Why create business models?

• Descriptive vs. normative models - descriptive

tells the narrative at high detail - normative

reduces complexity and flexibility, but leads its

well towards development as a result

Data Flow Diagrams

• Shows relations among processes at high conceptual level

• Good for broad descriptions of overall process – less effective for programming since processes themselves are “black-boxed” - many assumptions made

Unified Modeling Language (UML)

• Organization of process data by class, activity, use case, sequence and deployment

• Approaches level of detail to allow for coding – almost writing psuedocode at this point

UML 2.0 Activity Diagrams

• Action nodes: operates on data it receives,

provides data to others (input(s), process,

output model)

• Control nodes: coordination points - terminal

nodes, forks and joins, decision nodes

• Object nodes: placeholders for data

UML 2.0 Activity Diagrams

• Left to right - passage of time (sequence)

• Up/down - different acting agents (“swimlanes”)

• Decisions, forks, joins, terminal nodes - data

structure and flow integrated

• Similar to flowcharts, but a bit more sophisticated



Issues to consider

• “black hole” and “miracle” actions

• Decision nodes should have complete range of options

• Forks and joins must connect

• Entry/exit must be possible without getting lost or looped

• Swimlanes/swimareas must make sense – too many implies needing multiple linked diagrams

XML basics

• What is XML? Relation to HTML?

• Extensible, semantic and well-formed


• W3C standard

• Style and document type through linked

documents vs. embedded in tags

Definition, Presentation, Content

• Definition of elements - DTD or XSD

• Presentation of elements - XSL

• Content - XML - links to DTD for semantic

information, XSL for display information

• Validation - check on syntactical and logical

accuracy (doesn’t make it makes sense - just

that it’s logically consistent)


• Both definitional documents - make XML tags

make sense

• DTD is in SGML (precursor to XML), does not

handle range of data types well, not very


• XML schemas (XSD) - answers all DTD

questions - XML based, extensible namespace,

range of data types

XSD components

• Data types (string, integers, floats, etc.)

• Complex and simple element definitions,

element attributes and constraints

• Relations and inheritance - e.g., borrowing

from and extending current XSDs (e.g., Dublin


XSL - Defining Presentation

• XML - extensible to range of devices (e.g.,

browsers, WAP, voice, etc.)

• XSL - defines presentation of XML data

• Linked file of patterns for display - multiple

XSLs for multiple display options, one XSL for

multiple documents

• Similar to link between HTML and CSS

XSLT - Interoperability

• What happens if I define your grade as

<grade></grade> and UTM wants


• XSLT - transformation of XML “dialects” - also

transformation into HTML, etc.


• EDI limitations - complex proprietary formats,

difficult to maintain

• XML - easier to understand and implement,

more flexible

• XSLT - can convert XML to required EDI

formats (and back again)

Example: NETFILE

• Tax information is an obvious fit for XML and

is used (e.g, CRA documentation, T4 filings by


• But: .tax files are parsed data sets -

incomprehensible to human reader

• Why?

Example: ebXML

• Emerging XML standard for basic e-business transactions

• Core components, business processes and specifications, trading partner information and registration, messaging

• Nested XML standards to facilitate interoperability, notify partners of constraints, format data interchange correctly

E-commerce applications

• B2C, B2B, C2C – all with different information

systems requirements

• Difference between commercial and simple

information system transactions (e.g.,

B2G/C2G – is filing taxes or regulatory

information “commerce”?)

Consumer Benefits/Limitations

• 24/7

• Potentially lower


• Worldwide reach

• Immediate delivery of

digital products

• Info. diversity and


• Customer service

• Non-immediate

physical product


• Customs/taxation

• Security/privacy


• Limited tangible

experience with


Business Benefits/Limitations

• Potential for larger


• Niche market


• Better integration of

transaction and

customer relation


• Potential for more

feedback on service

• Increased


• Comparison shopping

drives margins down

• Information overload

– both internal and

customer service

Strategic issues

• Barriers to market entry

• New players entering market

• Influence on competitive environment

• Influence on relations among involved parties

• Collaboration/alliances

• Emergence of new market niches

• Normalization – what is long-term effect?

Next week(s)

• Nov. 12 – Maor Daniel of Yahoo! - plus

consulting project proposals

• Nov. 19 – More e-commerce application


• Nov. 26 – Final project presentations

• Dec. 3 – Final test

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