Muscle Physics - Biology - Lecture Slides, Slides for Biology. All India Institute of Medical Sciences
ekana22 December 2012

Muscle Physics - Biology - Lecture Slides, Slides for Biology. All India Institute of Medical Sciences

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Muscle Physics, Consumption, Muscular Contraction, Active Transport Processes, Energy Currency, Muscle Cells, Supply Replenished, Alternate Energy, Body With Energy, Exercise Physiology are some points from these lecture...
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Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture

“Thought for the Day”

"Failure is an event, never a person."

Anatomy & Physiology Bio Lecture

Section 3 Lecture 2 Muscle Physiology


Last week:  Consumption of ATP:  Muscular contraction (Interaction of Actin &

Myosin) Active Transport processes

ATP is critical for many cellular processes ATP is the “energy currency” (NOT



Last week:  Supply of ATP  4-6 second supply in muscle cells 10 seconds more – Convertion from Creatine

Phosphate How is the supply replenished?


We know why we need ATP, but:  Where does ATP come from?  What are the “fuel” sources?  What are the alternate energy

pathways?  How efficient is the body with energy?


 Understanding the metabolic pathways is important for:  Nutrition (Personal & Professional)  Exercise Physiology  Bariatric Medicine  Disease and Pathology  Effects of poisons on the cycle  Metabolic diseases

Glucose Catabolism

 Glucose is catabolized in three pathways  Glycolysis  Krebs cycle  The electron transport chain and oxidative


Summary of ATP Production

 See also Appendix D. for more detail.

Lipogenesis & Lipolysis: (We are a “flex fuel” vehicle!)

Interconversion of Nutrients (Can sugar or protein turn to fat?)

Alternate Source of ATP:

 Anaerobic metabolism  Pyruvic Acid to Lactic Acid  Yields only 2 ATP (vs.18 for oxidative pathway)  Used mainly by skeletal muscle  Provides short term, peak power  Returned to pyruvic acid/Glucose by liver

Efficiency of Metabolic Pathways:

 Glycolysis – (Glucose to 2 Pyruvic Acid) Yields 2 ATP  Aerobic (2 Pyruvic Acid to CO2 ) Yields 18 x 2 = 36 ATP  Anaerobic (Pyruvic Acid to Lactic Acid) Yields only 2 ATP per molecule What are the implications in athletic training

and performance?

Where do these reactions occur?  Protein/Carbohydrate/

Fats – GI Tract  Glycogen/Glucose in

liver & muscle tissue  Krebs/Electron

transport in mitochondria.

 Where is the source of ATP?

Summary of reactions

Overall energy efficiency (Miles per Pepsi)

 About 60% of the energy value of Glucose is “lost” as heat, rather than converted to ATP.

 Still, 30 grams of carbohydrate (Glucose) = 120 calories, enough energy to walk or run one mile. (A typical 12 oz.soft drink has about 35 grams of carbohydrate).

 We are very fuel efficient!

Key Points:

 ATP is the energy currency used in many reactions.

 Glucose is the molecule ultimately used by the body as the primary source of energy

 Pathways exist for interchange between amino acids, lipids, and glucose.

 Aerobic oxidation in the mitochondria is the primary ATP source.

ATP Structure

NAD Structure

FAD Structure

Kreb’s Cycle

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