Nervous System - Anatomy - Lecture Slides, Slides for Dental Anatomy. Alagappa University

Dental Anatomy

Description: Appendicular skeleton, digestive system, functions of anatomy, tissue and urinary system, joints, respiratory system, nerve, brain, cell, bones, blood vessels, cardiovascular system, central nervous system are topics of this Anatomy course. This lecture includes: Nervous, System, Tissue, Fundamentals, Neuroglia, Synapse, Nomenclature, PNS, Neurons
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Chapter 12: Fundamentals of the

Nervous System and Nervous Tissue

Overview of the NS

 PNS (Peripheral Nervous System)

 CNS (Central Nervous System)




Some nomenclature

Functional Overview of NS

CNS = Brain and Spinal Cord

Integration, processing and coordination of sensory data and motor commands

Higher functions


1. Sensory or afferent division

with sensory neurons.

Brings sensory info from


Begins at receptors

2. Motor or efferent division

with motor neurons.

Brings motor commands to

peripheral tissue.

Ends at effector cells.

Made up of neurons

and neuroglia

Functional Overview of NS

Similar to fig 12.3

Cellular Organization of Neural Tissue

Two cell types:

1. Neurons

1. “Excitable” cells

2. Neuroglia (mostly not excitable)

 Schwann cells

 Satellite cells

 Astrocytes

 Oligodendrocytes

 Microglial cells

 Ependymal cells

1. Neurons

Cell body or Soma with Perikaryon


Axon with axon hillock

Synaptic terminals

Fig 12.4

Typical structure:

Cell body = Soma


The “signal,” or Action

Potential is carried

along the neurilemma

Faster if axon is


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