Periods of Development - Human Development - Lecture Slides, Slides for Human Development. Himgiri Zee University

Human Development

Description: Periods of Development, Human Development, Developmental Psychology, Child Development, Life Span Development, Areas of Development, Study Development, Key Themes, Themes in the Study, Major Theoretical Perspectives. Above mentioned are either slide title of slide or any other important term described in this lecture of Human Development course.
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Human Development Topic 1


What is Human Development?

• Developmental Psychology

• Child Development

• Life Span Development

Periods of Development


• Conception to Birth

Infancy and Toddlerhood

• Birth to 3 yrs

Preschool Period

• 3 to 6 yrs

Middle Childhood

• 6-12 yrs


• 12-20 yrs

Young Adulthood

• 20-40 yrs

Middle Adulthood

• 40-60 yrs

Late Adulthood

• 60 to death


Social and Personality


Areas of Development Why Should We Study Development?

• To understand typical development

Human Development Topic 1


Why Should We Study Development?

• To help us rear children

Why Should We Study Development?

• To inform social policies


• Why Study Development?

– To understand typical development

– To know when and why development

sometimes goes wrong (for prevention &


– To know how to raise children properly

– To inform social policies

– What do you think?

Key Themes in Human Development

Continuous vs. discontinuous change

Critical periods vs. sensitive periods

Nature vs. nurture

Sociocultural Context

Human Development Topic 1


Themes in the Study of Child Development

• Continuity and Discontinuity: Is early development

related to later development?

Themes in the Study of Child Development

• Continuity & Discontinuity: Is development

quantitative (gradual & continuous) or

qualitative (stage-like)?

Themes in the Study of Child Development

• Critical Periods vs. Sensitive Periods

Themes in the Study of Child Development

• Nature and Nurture

How do nature and nurture together shape


Human Development Topic 1


Themes in the Study of Child Development

The Sociocultural Context: How do society and culture

influence development?

Differences between cultures

Themes in the Study of Child Development

• The Sociocultural Context: How do society and

culture influence development?

– Differences within cultures

Every person is like every other person.

Every person is like some other person.

Every person is like no other person.

(Adapted from Kluckhohn & Murray, 1948)

What is a theory?

• Theories

– explanations concerning phenomena of interest,

providing a framework for understanding the

relationships among a set of facts or principles

Human Development Topic 1


The Modern Empirical Approach

• Start with theory

– Development is dependent on context . . .

– Development is a balance between nature and

nurture . . .

– Children are better off if left to their own

devices. . .

– Development progresses through stages

Major Theoretical Perspectives

Psycho- dynamic

Cognitive Behavioral

Humanistic Contextual Evolution-


Perspective: Psychodynamic

• Psychoanalytic TheoryTheory

• FreudTheorist

• Inner person, unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior

What develops

• Behavior motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts

How development proceeds

• Personality has three aspects-id, ego, and superego

• Psychosexual development involves series of stages-oral, anal, phallic, genital


Perspective: Psychodynamic

• Psychosocial TheoryTheory

• EriksonTheorist

• Focus on social interaction with othersPrimary focus

• Through changes in interactions with and understanding of others and in self knowledge and others

How development proceeds

• 8 stages presents crisis/conflict to be resolved; growth and change are lifelongPrinciples

Human Development Topic 1


Perspective: Cognitive

• Information-processing approachTheorist

• Focus is primarily on memoryWhat develops

• Information is thought to be processed in serial, discontinuous manner as it moves from stage to stage

How development proceeds

• Cognitive development proceeds quickly in certain areas and more slowly in others

• Experience plays a role in cognition Principles

Perspective: Cognitive

• Jean PiagetTheorist

• Processes that allow people to know, understand, and think about the world

What develops

• Human thinking is arranged in organized mental patterns that represent behaviors and actions

How development proceeds

• Assimilation and Accommodation

• Schemes and schemas Other key terms

Perspective: Cognitive

• Cognitive Neuroscience ApproachTheorist

• Cognitive development through lens of brain

What develops

• Neurological activity that underlies thinking, problem solving, and other cognitive behavior

How development


Perspective: Behavioral

• John B. WatsonTheorist

• Focus on observable behavior and outside environmental stimuliWhat develops

• Behavior is result of continuing exposure to specific environmental factors; developmental change is quantitative

How development proceeds

• Classical conditioningPrinciples

Human Development Topic 1


Perspective: Behavioral

• B. F. SkinnerTheorist

• Focus on observable behavior and outside environmental stimuliWhat develops

• Voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by association with negative or positive consequences

How development proceeds

• Operant conditioningPrinciples

Perspective: Behavioral

• Albert Bandura

• Social-Cognitive Theorist

• Focus on learning through imitationWhat develops

• Behavior is learned through observation How development


• Social-cognitive learning occurs through four steps


Perspective: Humanistic

• Carl Rogers

• Abraham MaslowTheorists

• Each individual’s ability and motivation to reach more advanced levels of maturity

• People naturally seek to reach full potential What develops

• All people have need for positive regard resulting from underlying wish to be loved and respectedPrinciples

• Free will; positive self-regard; self-actualizationOther key terms

Perspective: Contextual

• Focuses on the relationship between

individuals and their social context

Human Development Topic 1


Perspective: Contextual

• Urie Bronfenbrenner

• Bioecological Approach Theorist

• Relationship between individuals and their physical, cognitive, personality, and social worldsWhat develops

• Development is unique and tied to person’s social and cultural context

How development proceeds

• Each system contains roles, norms, and rules that can powerfully shape development; Principles

Bioecological Approach to


Figure 1-2. Bronfenbrenner’s Approach to Development

Perspective: Sociocultural

• Lev VygotskyTheorist

• Cognitive understanding of worldWhat develops

• Development is a reciprocal transaction between people in the child’s environment and the child.

How development proceeds

• Scaffolding

• Zone of proximal development (ZPD) Other key terms

Perspective: Evolutionary

• Seeks to identify behavior that is a result of

our genetic inheritance

Human Development Topic 1


Perspective: Evolutionary

• Charles Darwin

• Konrad Lorenz Theorists

• Traits and behavior that are adaptive for promoting survival of our species have been shaped through natural selection

What develops

• Behavior is result of genetic inheritance from ancestors

How development proceeds

• Ethological influence (examines ways in which biological makeup affects behavior)Principles

• Behavioral geneticsOther key terms

Why asking about right may be


• Each perspective is based on its own premises

and focuses on different aspects of


• A single developmental phenomenon can be

examined from a number of different

perspectives simultaneously

Next Time

• Research Methods

• For Thursday

– Read 1.3

– Complete MyDevelopmentLab assignments

• Due at Midnight Wednesday

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