Project Management-System Analysis and Design-Lecture Slides, Slides for System Analysis and Design. Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (PIEAS)

System Analysis and Design

Description: Dr. Daud Khan delivered this lecture at Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (PIEAS) for System Analysis and Design course. It includes: Project, Management, PERT, Gantt, Process, Measures, Success, Causes, Failure
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Ahmed-hamadahamada - Menoufia University

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05/05/13 19:04
Object Oriented Analyis & Design Training Agenda

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved

Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

4 C H A P T E R

PROJECT

MANAGEMENT

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Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved

Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Chapter Four Project Management

• Define the terms project and project management, and differentiate between project and process management.

• Describe the causes of failed information systems and technology projects.

• Describe the basic competencies required of project managers.

• Describe the basic functions of project management.

• Differentiate between PERT and Gantt charts as project management tools.

• Describe the role of project management software as it relates to project management tools.

• Describe eight activities in project management.

• Define joint project planning and its role in project management.

• Define scope and a write a statement of work to document scope.

• Use a work breakdown structure to decompose a project into tasks.

• Estimate tasks’ durations, and specify intertask dependencies on a PERT chart.

• Assign resources to a project and produce a project schedule with a Gantt chart.

• Assign people to tasks and direct the team effort.

• Use critical path analysis to adjust schedule and resource allocations in response to schedule and budget deviations.

• Manage user expectations of a project and adjust project scope. docsity.com

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved

Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Chapter Map

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Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved

Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Project, Project Management, and Process Management

Project – a [temporary] sequence of unique, complex, and

connected activities having one goal or purpose and that must

be completed by specific time, within budget, and according to

specification.

Project management – the process of scoping, planning,

staffing, organizing, directing, and controlling the development

of an acceptable system at a minimum cost within a specified

time frame.

Process management – the activity of documenting, managing,

and continually improving the process of systems development.

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Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved

Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Measures of Project Success

– The resulting information system is

acceptable to the customer.

– The system was delivered ―on time.‖

– The system was delivered ―within budget.‖

– The system development process had a

minimal impact on ongoing business

operations.

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Causes of Project Failure

• Failure to establish upper-management commitment to the project

• Lack of organization’s commitment to the system development methodology

• Taking shortcuts through or around the system development methodology

• Poor expectations management

• Premature commitment to a fixed budget and schedule

• Poor estimating techniques

• Overoptimism

• The mythical man-month (Brooks, 1975)

• Inadequate people management skills

• Failure to adapt to business change

• Insufficient resources

• Failure to ―manage to the plan‖ docsity.com

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Poor Expectations Management

Scope creep – the unexpected and gradual growth of

requirements during an information systems project.

Feature creep– the uncontrolled addition of technical

features to a system.

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Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved

Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Project Manager Competencies

• Business awareness

• Business partner orientation

• Commitment to quality

• Initiative

• Information gathering

• Analytical thinking

• Conceptual thinking

• Interpersonal awareness

• Organizational awareness

• Anticipation of impact

• Resourceful use of influence

• Motivating others

• Communication skills

• Developing others

• Monitoring and controlling

• Self-confidence

• Stress management

• Concern for credibility

• Flexibility

(Adapted from Wysocki, Beck, and Crane, Effective Project Management:

How to Plan, Manage, and De iver Projects on Time and within Budget.)

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Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved

Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Project Management Functions

Scoping – setting the boundaries of the project

Planning – identifying the tasks required to complete the project

Estimating – identifying the resources required to complete the project

Scheduling – developing the plan to complete the project

Organizing – making sure members understand their roles and responsibilities

Directing – coordinating the project

Controlling – monitoring progress

Closing – assessing success and failure docsity.com

Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved

Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Project Management Tools & Techniques

PERT chart – a graphical network model used to

depict the interdependencies between a project’s tasks.

Gantt chart – a bar chart used to depict project tasks

against a calendar.

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

PERT Chart

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Gantt Chart

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Microsoft Project Gantt Chart

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Microsoft Project PERT Chart

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Project Management Life Cycle

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Joint Project Planning Strategy

Joint project planning (JPP) – a strategy in which all

stakeholders attend an intensive workshop aimed at

reaching consensus on project decisions.

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Activity 1 – Negotiate Scope

Scope – the boundaries of a project – the aeas of a business that a project may (or may not) address. Includes answers to five basic questions:

Product

Quality

Time

Cost

Resources

Statement of work – a narrative description of the work to be performed as part of a project. Common synonyms include scope statement, project definition, project overview, and document of understanding.

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Statement of Work

I. Purpose

II. Background A. Problem, opportunity, or directive statement B. History leading to project request C. Project goal and objectives D. Product description

III. Scope A. Stakeholders B. Data C. Processes D. Locations

IV. Project Approach A. Route B. Deliverables

V. Managerial Approach A. Team building considerations B. Manager and experience C. Training requirements (continued)

Notice the use of information system building blocks

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Statement of Work (concluded)

V. Managerial Approach (continued) D. Meeting schedules E. Reporting methods and frequency F. Conflict management G. Scope management

VI. Constraints A. Start date B. Deadlines C. Budget D. Technology

VII. Ballpark Estimates A. Schedule B. Budget

VIII. Conditions of Satisfaction A. Success criteria B. Assumptions C. Risks

IX. Appendices docsity.com

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Activity 2 – Identify Tasks

Work breakdown structure (WBS) – a graphical

tool used to depict the hierarchical decomposition of

the project into phases, activities, and tasks.

Milestone – an event signifying the completion of a

major project deliverable.

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

A Graphical Work Breakdown Structure

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Activity 3 – Estimate Task Durations

1. Estimate the minimum amount of time it would take to

perform the task – the optimistic duration (OD).

2. Estimate the maximum amount of time it would take to

perform the task – the pessimistic duration (PD).

3. Estimate the expected duration (ED) that will be needed to

perform the task.

4. Calculate a weighted average of the most likely duration

(D) as follows:

D = (1 x OD) + (4 x ED) + (1 x PD)

6

3.33 days = (1 x 2 days) + (4 x 3 days) + (1 x 6 days)

6

PD ED OD

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Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved

Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Activity 4 – Specify Intertask Dependencies

• Finish-to-start (FS)—The finish of one task triggers

the start of another task.

• Start-to-start (SS)—The start of one task triggers the

start of another task.

• Finish-to-finish (FF)—Two tasks must finish at the

same time.

• Start-to-finish (SF)—The start of one task signifies the

finish of another task.

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Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved

Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Entering Intertask Dependencies

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Scheduling Strategies

Forward scheduling – a project scheduling approach

that establishes a project start date and then schedules

forward from that date.

Reverse scheduling – a project scheduling strategy

that establishes a project deadline and then schedules

backward from that date.

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

A Project Schedule in Calendar View

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Activity 5 – Assign Resources

• People – includes all the system owners, users, analysts, designers, builders, external agents, and clerical help that will be involved in the project in any way.

• Services – includes services such as a quality review that may be charged on a per use basis.

• Facilities and equipment – includes all rooms and technology that will be needed to complete the project.

• Supplies and materials – includes everything from pencils, paper, notebooks to toner cartridges, and so on.

• Money – includes a translation of all of the above into budgeted dollars!

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Defining Project Resources

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Assigning Project Resources

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Resource Leveling

Resource leveling – a strategy for correcting resource

overallocations.

There are two techniques for resource leveling:

task delaying

task splitting

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Task Splitting and Delaying

Critical path – the sequence of dependent tasks that

determines the earliest possible completion date of the

project.

– Tasks that are on the critical path cannot be delayed

without delaying the entire project schedule. To achieve

resource leveling, critical tasks can only be split.

Slack time – the amount of delay that can be tolerated

between the starting time and completion time of a task

without causing a delay in the completion date of the entire

project.

– Tasks that have slack time can be delayed to achieve

resource leveling docsity.com

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Activity 6 – Direct the Team Effort

• Supervision resources

– The Deadline: A Novel

about Project Management

– The People Side of

Systems

– The One Minute Manager

– The One Minute Manager

Meets the Monkey

• Stages of Team Maturity (see figure to the right)

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

10 Hints for Project Leadership

• Be Consistent.

• Provide Support.

• Don’t Make Promises You Can’t Keep.

• Praise in Public; Criticize in Private.

• Be Aware of Morale Danger Points.

• Set Realistic Deadlines.

• Set Perceivable Targets.

• Explain and Show, Rather Than Do.

• Don’t Rely Just on [Status Reports].

• Encourage a Good Team Spirit.

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Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved

Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Activity 7 – Monitor and Control Progress

• Progress reporting

• Change management

• Expectations management

• Schedule adjustments—critical path analysis

(CPA)

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Sample Outline for a Progress Report

I. Cover Page A. Project name or identification B. Project manager C. Date or report

II. Summary of progress A. Schedule analysis B. Budget analysis C. Scope analysis

(describe any changes that may have an impact on future progress) D. Process analysis

(describe any problems encountered with strategy or methodology) E. Gantt progress chart(s)

III. Activity analysis A. Tasks completed since last report B. Current tasks and deliverables C. Short term future tasks and deliverables

(continued)

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Sample Outline for a Progress Report (concluded)

IV. Previous problems and issues A. Action item and status B. New or revised action items 1. Recommendation 2. Assignment of responsibility 3. Deadline

V. New problems and issues A. Problems (actual or anticipated) B. Issues (actual or anticipated) C. Possible solutions 1. Recommendation 2. Assignment of responsibility 3. Deadline

VI. Attachments (include relevant printouts from project management software)

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Progress Reporting on a Gantt Chart

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Change Management

Change management – a formal strategy in which a process is established to facilitate changes that occur during a project.

Changes can be the result of various events and factors including:

– An omission in defining initial scope

– A misunderstanding of the initial scope

– An external event such as government regulations that create new requirements

– Organizational changes

– Availability of better technology

– Shifts in planned technology that force unexpected and significant changes to the business organization, culture, and/or processes

– Management’s desire to have the system do more than was originally requested or agreed to

– Reduced funding for the project or imposition of an earlier deadline.

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Expectations Management

Expectations management matrix – a tool used to understand the dynamics and impact of changing the parameters of a project.

The most important

The second most important

The least important

Can have only

one X in each

row and each

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Lunar Project Expectations Management

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Typical, Initial Expectations for a Project

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Adjusting Expectations

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Changing Priorities

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Schedule Adjustments - Critical Path Analysis

1. Using intertask dependencies, determine every possible path

through the project.

2. For each path, sum the durations of all tasks in the path.

3. The path with the longest total duration is the critical path.

– The critical path for a project is that sequence of dependent

tasks that have the largest sum of most likely durations. The

critical path determines the earliest completion date of the

project.

– The slack time available for any noncritical task is the amount of

delay that can be tolerated between the starting time and

completion time of a task without causing a delay in the

completion date of the entire project.

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Critical Path Analysis

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Whitten Bentley Dittman SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 6th Edition

Activity 8 – Assess Project Results and Experiences

• Did the final product meet or exceed user

expectations?

– Why or why not?

• Did the project come in on schedule?

– Why or why not?

• Did the project come in under budget?

– Why or why not?

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