Reality Therapy - Theories of Counseling - Lecture Notes, Study notes for Counseling. Biju Patnaik University of Technology, Rourkela

Counseling

Description: Reality Therapy, Choice Theory, Cycle of Counseling, Paining Behaviors, Psychological Needs, Quality World, Self Evaluation, Key Figures, Major Focus, Philosophy and Basic Assumptions are some points form the lecture handout of Theories of Counseling.
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Reality Therapy

Reality Therapy Based on Choice Theory

Key Terms Autonomy- state of accepting responsibility and taking control of self (life) Commitment- not skewing from the plan for change Choice Theory- humans are internally motivated and have a purpose to control behaviors; humans are self-determined and create own destiny (all elements of behavior are interrelated) Cycle of Counseling- any means to create a positive environment in counseling, based on personal involvement and procedures for change to occur Involvement- counselor’s interest in and caring for clients Paining Behaviors- people choose misery by developing symptoms (headaching, depressing, anxietying) because at the time they seem to be the best behaviors to execute for survival Perceived World- the reality we experience and interpret Psychological Needs- needs for belonging, power, freedom, and fun that drive people and explain behaviors Quality World- perceptions and images we have to fulfill our basic psychological needs Responsibility- satisfying personal needs while not interfering with people who fulfill their needs Self-Evaluation- clients’ assessment of current behaviors in order to determine if their behaviors are working and if behaviors are meeting their needs Total Behavior- integrated components of doing, thinking, feeling, and physiology WDEP System- procedures that are applied to the practice of reality therapy groups; strategies help clients identify their wants, determine direction behaviors take them, self-evaluations, and designs plans for change

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Key Figures and Major Focus William Glasser Robert Wubbolding Developed in 1950s-1960s 1970s-1980s Glasser taught control theory (people have choices for what they are doing) 1996 Glasser revised control to choice theory Choice theory is concerned with clients’ phenomenological world Individuals are responsible for what they do and choose their own destiny Clients perceive and react to their world based on their internal locus of evaluation (behaviors come from within) Behaviors are purposeful and attempts to get what we want (close gap between wants and perceptions of what they are getting) Philosophy and Basic Assumptions Humans are self-determining Humans change when they determine their behavior is not getting them what they want & when they believe they have choices of behaviors People choose total behavior, hence responsible for acting, thinking, feeling, and psychological states Major Premise- behavior is aimed to satisfy needs for survival, love and belonging, power, freedom, and fun Focus- acting and thinking are chosen behaviors (changing acting and thinking influences feelings and physiological states) Choice theory explains how people attempt to control their world and teaches ways to satisfy needs and wants in effective manners Key Concepts Behavior is a way to control our perceptions of the external world so they fit internal and need-satisfying world Humans develop a quality world (cognitive photo album) of wants Core principle- people have choices no matter the circumstances Emphasis- assuming responsibility and dealing with the present

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Therapeutic Goals Overall goal- assist clients to better meet their needs for love, belonging, survival, power, freedom, and fun Help clients gain psychological strength, accept personal responsibility, regain control of lives Challenge clients to examine what they are doing, thinking, and feeling Teach client to self-evaluate behaviors and determine what they want to change Personal growth, Improvement, Enhanced lifestyle, Decision making Therapeutic Relationship Counselors are involved with clients from outset and create warm, supportive, and challenging relationship (clients must know that counselors are for them) Involvement with and concern for are conveyed throughout the counseling process Once trust is established, counselors confront clients with reality and consequences of their actions Counselors avoid: criticism, accepting excuses, and giving up on clients Assist clients to continually assess effectiveness and appropriateness of their behaviors Techniques and Procedures Reality therapy is a cycle of counseling (counseling environment & procedures for behavior change) W= wants, explore wants, needs and perceptions D= direction and doing, focus on what clients are doing and the direction they are headed E= evaluation, challenge clients to evaluate their total behavior (continual basis) P= planning and commitment, assist in the formulation of realistic plans and making commitment to carry out plans Applications Youth offenders (detention facilities) Variety of behavioral problems Individual and group counseling & marital and family counseling Military Drug and alcohol clinics Teaching and administration Social work, Crisis intervention, & Management and community development

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Contributions Short-term approach with wide range of clients Structure for clients and counselors Simple and clear concepts, can be used by parents, teachers, ministers, managers, consultants, supervisors, counselors and social workers Positive, action-oriented approach Accepting personal responsibility and gaining effective control People take charge of their lives Focus for what clients are willing to do in the present Contributions to Multicultural Counseling Respect difference in worldviews and cultural values Explore how behaviors affect themselves and others Skillful questioning will help asses how ethnic minorities have acculturated (integration of society) Relationships are the problems in all cultures Wubbolding worked with several cultures in different countries (known for work with people in Japan) Counselors need to be artful and skillful in their work Short-term counseling Limitations Rejects: medical model, past, exploration of dreams, dwelling on feelings or insight, transference, and unconscious Direct questioning needs to be softened when working with ethnic minorities At times choice is not an option, discrimination and racism are reality Minority clients may be hesitant to state what they need

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