Secondary Growth - Botany - Lecture Slides, Slides for Botany and Agronomy. Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology
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suneeta9 January 2013

Secondary Growth - Botany - Lecture Slides, Slides for Botany and Agronomy. Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology

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These are the important key slides of Botany are:Secondary Growth, Woody Plants, Secondary Growth and Lateral Meristems, Vascular Cambium, Woody Plants, Dicot Stems, Springwood, Softwoods Vs Hardwoods, Taxonomic Identity...
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Secondary growth

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Woody plants • 20% of all dicot species (oaks, maples) • 5% of all monocot species • All gymnosperms (pines, firs, redwoods)

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Secondary growth & lateral meristems

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Vascular cambium produces secondary vascular tissue in woody stems and

roots

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Woody roots

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vascular cambium

Woody plants & secondary growth

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Secondary growth of dicot stems

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springwood

summerwood Docsity.com

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Softwoods vs. hardwoods • Softwoods – no vessels, few fibers

– Pine, spruce

• Hardwoods – many vessels, fibers – Oak, maple

Resin canals

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Ring-porous wood vs. diffuse porous wood

• Used in taxonomic identity of woody species

Ash Beech

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Xylem Rays

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Ray cells conduct laterally

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Woody stem, l.s.

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heartwood sapwood

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Heartwood – xylem vessels blocked by tyloses

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Secondary phloem

phloem

fibers

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Outer bark (periderm)

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Periderm (outer bark)

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Periderm

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Which of the following statements is true?

1. The vascular cambium produces secondary xylem and the cork cambium produces secondary phloem

2. The vascular cambium produces primary vascular tissue and the cork cambium produces secondary vascular tissue

3. The vascular cambium produces secondary xylem toward the outside and secondary phloem toward the inside

4. The vascular cambium produces secondary xylem and phloem and the cork cambium produces the periderm

5. Both 3 and 4 are true

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Non-functional secondary xylem is called

1. Heartwood 2. Springwood 3. Sapwood 4. Deadwood 5. Summerwood

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A tylose is associated with

1. Vascular cambium 2. Cork cambium 3. Heartwood 4. Periderm 5. Summerwood

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Sapwood is most likely to be located

1. Just inside the cork cambium 2. In the xylem “ring” closest to the center

of the stem 3. In the xylem “ring” closest to the

vascular cambium 4. Just outside the cork cambium

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Cinnamon • Bark of Cinnamomum verum • Spice used in cooking • Herbal remedy

– Appetite loss – Bronchitis – Colds (Cough, fever, sore throat) – Indigestion – Tendency to infection – Diarrhea – Hemorrhage

• Ingredient in toothpaste, mouthwash, perfume, soap, lipstick, chewing gum, and cola drinks

• Insecticide

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Salix alba (White willow) - salicin

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Cinchona species – Quinine

• Actions: Analgesic, Anesthetic, Antiarrhythmic, Antibacterial, Antimalarial, Anti-microbial, Anti- parasitic, Antipyretic, Antiviral, Antiseptic, Astringent, Bactericide, Fungicide, Febrifuge, Insecticide, Nervine, Stomachic, Tonic

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Taxus brevifolia (Pacific Yew) - Taxol

• 1991 - 60,000 lbs. of the dried bark yields about 9lbs. of taxol drug (12,000 trees)

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Dendrochronology

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Dendrochronology

• Used to calibrate C14 dating • ~8000 year tree ring calendar

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Woody plant pests • Southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus

frontalis)

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SPB damage

• 1973-77 outbreak – 4.5M board feet lost

• Avg. annual loss – 100M board feet – 20M cu. Ft. growing stock

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Bristlecone pines

• Oldest organism – 4767 yrs. old

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That’s a big stem!

Redwoods grow up to 350 ft tall; 30 ft. dia.

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That’s a big stem!

Sequoiadendron giganteum – “Grizzly Giant” (1790-

2700 years old) – Up to 350ft tall; 30ft

in diameter

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That’s a big stem! • Baobab (Adonsonia digitata) grow up to

45 ft. in diameter

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That’s a big stem!

Black River Swamp (Pender and Bladen Counties) The Black River, a blackwater tributary to the Cape Fear River, provides wonderful opportunities to explore old-growth forests on a half-day canoe trip. Surrounded by classic blackwater river swamp, the Black River is home to the oldest living trees east of the Rocky Mountains according to research conducted by dendrochronologists from the University of Arkansas. Individual trees with swollen buttresses, often exceeding 15 feet in diameter, may be 1,700-2,000 years old.

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