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PART 2 : Beginning of the era of transformation
18th century Decline of central authority = increasing degrees of autonomy of the Arab provinces Incursion of European commerce and capital : economies of the middle east became integrated into the world economic system.
19th century in the Middle East = period of tension between forces of continuity (fear of the dismantling of the Islamic order) and forces of change (European institutions and technology).
Chapter 5: The Ottoman Empire and Egypt during the era of the Tanzimat (1839-1876)
19th century = emulation of European methods of administration, education, and political organization expansion of the role of the state. European capital investment for those reforms = Achilles ‘heel of the reform movement
I. The Tanzimat: continued Ottoman reform under the bureaucrats -1839-1876
tanzimat = reorganization Most intensive phase of ottoman reformist activity - Rashid Pasha - Ali Pasha - Fuad Pasha = Driving forces behind the movement to transform the administrative structure of the Ottoman Empire. 2 royal decrees = very essence of the Tanzimat, giving equality for all subjects of the Ottoman Empire regardless of their religion to secure the loyalty of the Christian subjects, replace the religious ordering of the society : secular identity Tanzimat = military improvement but reforms extended to others areas (institutions of higher learning for civilians, Ministry of Education… / new legal code, combination of the new and the customary law) Fear : the abandonment of long standing Islamic institutions in favor of the hasty adoption of European ones would lead to disaster.
The Young Ottomans group of intellectual : reconcile the new institutions of the Tanzimat with the Ottoman and Islamic political tradition best of both worlds : reform was desirable, but it had to be grounded in the Islamic tradition.
The Ottoman Constitutions of 1876 the secret of Europe’s success rested also with its political organizations. New constitution : equality of all Ottoman subjects, proclamation of Ottomanism and Ottoman patriotism Sultan Abdul Hamid in power in 1878 : dissolved the assembly, suspended the constitution, inaugurated thirty years of autocratic rules (chap 3)
Ottoman finances Tanzimat = expensive new programs with state revenues remained fairly constant take loans on the European money markets. By 1974, about 60 percent of the State’s total expenditure was devoted to servicing the debt.
the Diplomacy of the Tanzimat : Patterns of European pressure on the Ottoman Empire - Russian expansion into Ottoman territory: Crimean war (1854-1856) Russian attempt to gain direct authority over the Orthodox Christian subjects of the Ottoman Empire. End of hostilities in 1856 (Treaty of Paris) - Series of war and revolt the Great Eastern Crisis (1875-1878) : Bismarck find a peaceful method of dismantling the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman losses were considerable: Serbia, Montenegro, Romania, Bulgaria = independent states.
II. The Arab provinces of the Greater Syria during the Tanzimat
Greater Syria = Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestinian Territories, Jordan
From the Egyptian Occupation to the Riots of 1860 Greater Syria = largest concentration of Ottoman Christian subjects outside of Europe, isolated from administrative control.
Decrees of 1839 and 1856 = Maronites and other Christians expanded their commercial activities change in the accepted social and political order that Muslim didn’t accept = Brutal civil war in 1860, beginning in the Mount Lebanon. To ensure safety of the Christian population, creation of an autonomous administrative status for Mount Lebanon, protected by a guarantee of the European powers.
The Social and Economic Impact of the Tanzimat politics of the notables : satisfaction of mutual interests.
III. Egypt during the era of the Civilian reform
From Muhammad Ali to Isma’il (1848-1863) New elite of officials trained in Europe or in European-style Egyptian institutions. This trend is illustrated by the career of Ali Mubarak and R. al-Tahtawi : admirers of certain aspects of European civilization, encouraged the spread of the Western ideas and the adoption of Western system of education and administration. Egypt’s economic development came to be shaped by the needs of the European market =tension between Egyptians and Europeans (because of their economic privileges) Situation became exacerbated with the rule of Isma’il.
Isma’il the Magnificent One of the most controversial figures in modern Egyptian history. Grandson of Muhammad Ali. His objective: the compete Europeanization of Egypt in the shortest time. “my country is no longer in Africa, it is now in Europe.” development of a European-educated Egyptian elite. the question of Egypt’s relationship to the Ottoman empire : to shower ottoman officials with gifts and bribes most significant legal reform : introduction of the Mixed Courts. transform Egypt into a European country devote enormous sums (completion of Canal de Suez, refashion Cairo) = Egypt sank into debt (1870 : new loans to meet the interest payments on previous loans) Egypt economic problems = loss of its political independence ; direct European intervention in the financial affairs formal decree deposing Isma’il, end of his reign : Tawfiq his son.
The Urabi Revolt (1879-1882) Weak Tawfiq : European freedom to arrange the disbursement of Egyptian revenues more and more European interference in Egypt’s internal affairs. First nationalist hero: Ahmad Urabi URABI: peasant, representing the authentic voice of the Egyptian people. 2 essential purpose of this revolt: - Eliminate foreign control of Egypt’s finances - End the autocracy: constitutional limits to Tawfiq authority. Fear of Urabi by the foreign governments September 1882 : the British forces defeated Urabi’s army = end of the movement.
Conclusion: the dualism of the nineteenth century reforms Reforms = institutional dualism in Middle Eastern Society. Traditional institutions vs new ones. For instance: new legal codes and courts vs shari’ah.
These transformations brought certain advantages to Egyptian and Ottoman society, it also brought economic hardship, social disruption, and political exploitation.
Chapter 6: Egypt and Iran in the late nineteenth century
Final decades 19th century: European empire/ context of colonization
I. England on the Nile: The British occupation of Egypt, 1882-1914
The Cromer years 1883-1907 British colonial system. Occupation of Egypt to safeguard the Suez Canal / imperial competition between the great powers of Europe Lord Cromer: colonial administrator Priorities: - Restore Egypt’s credit - Maintain domestic tranquility - Discouraging political agitation = rise in Egypt’s agricultural output
Egypt became more dependent than ever before: british dominated all areas of important decision-making within Egypt Death of the accommodating Tawfiq Abbas II: Egyptian nationalist + severe international recession 1907-1911 Egyptian demands for an end to the occupation: departure of Lord Cromer in 1907.
The growth of political organizations 1907-1914 Growth of Egyptian opposition to the British presence. Three main organizations, founded in 1907: Egyptian thinkers and activists association : - Constitutional Reform Party - National Party - People’s party
II. Iran during the second half of the nineteenth century
European influences came to Iran later than they did to Egypt and the Ottoman Empire and far less impact.
Changes in Iranian Shi’ism after the Safavids The reign of Nasir al-Din Shah (1848-1896) Iran between Russia and Britain The tobacco protest of 1891
Second half of the 19th : penetration of Europe capital and commerce into the Middle Eastern eco. Egypt managed by Lord Cromer to pursue British interests, not Egyptians (thinks that Egyptian are unprepared for independence) growth of Egyptian nationalism. Both secular and religious leaders: Urabi revolt “Egypt for Egyptians” Iran shared certain historical trends with Egypt and the Ottoman Empire (economic development: into the global economy as an exporter of raw materials). But did not experience an era comparable to the Ottoman Tanzimat or Egypt’s intense westernization.
Chapter 7: The response of Islamic society
End of 19th century: nearly all of the major political units of Islam under some form of European control. Terrible dilemma for Muslims: why did the divinely ordained Islamic community suffer such defeats at the hands of the infidels? Muslim intellectuals and political activists: Islamic practices had deviated from the true path self criticism, main goal: rediscover the essential principles of Islam.
I. Religious assertiveness and authoritarian reform: the era of Abdul Hamid II
End of 19th. Last Ottoman sultan to exercise unrestrained royal authority. Mixture of reform and conservatism + oppressive reaction against European institutions and ideas. Contrast to the secularism of the Tanzimat. ?
II. Islamic puritanism on the tribal frontiers: the Wahhabi, Sanusi, and Mahdiyyah movements
Rural milieu European expansionism was not the only inspiration for Islamic revivalism. Different Islamic movements: - Wahhabi movement: set by a scholar from central Arabia, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab - The Suni order, more within the tradition of Sufism than the Wahhabi movement.
- Mahdiyyah uprising in the northern Sudan. Mahdist revolt both a rebellion against the Egyptian occupation of the Sudan and a movement for the purification of Islam.
III. The reform of high Islam
Also expression in the urban milieu of high Islam. As in the tribal response: need for Muslims to acquire a proper understanding of the original principles of Islam; recover the spirit of solidarity and piety. Activist political dimension of Islamic revival: Jamal al-Din al-Afghani. Purpose of all those writings and wanderings was to arouse in Muslims a determination to overcome their weakness: the Christian west was currently dominant not because it was superior but because Islam had fallen into a state of decadence and stagnation.
IV. Emerging currents of Arab cultural distinctiveness
Ottoman-Islamic Middle Eastern order unstable: variety of responses emanating from its core to challenge the European dominance. the Islamic society has to find its own traditions the means for regeneration.
British occupied Egypt = growing feeling of national political independence. Tribal frontier : waves of unrest against both local corruption and European encroachment + programs of Islamic based activism.
Chapter 8: The era of the young Turks and the Iranian constitutionalists
I. The revolt of 1908 and the young turks in power II. The period of the Iranian constitutional revolution Conclusion:
Chapter 9: World War I and the end of the Ottoman Empire/Order
Beginning of the WWI: assassination of Austrian Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo, June 28, 1914 = Austria’ s invasion of Serbia European alliances: August, the Continent was at war. Triple Entente: Britain, France, and Russia. Central Powers: Germany and Austria-Hungary + Secret Ottoman-German alliance against Russia. At the end: Ottoman Empire defeated and dismembered by the peace treaties but real tenacity to defend the Ottoman order. War = accelerate the transformation of the Ottoman social order. Women role, new family law in 1917: shari’ah courts placed under the authority of the Ministry of justice secular state agency control over family law and personal status. Results of the war: division of the Ottoman Empire and occupation of its Arab provinces by Britain and France. However Turkish republic in Anatolia.
I. The Middle East in the war: an overview of military operations and diplomatic initiatives.
Extensive borders of the empire: vulnerability posting troops on several fronts. - Eastern Anatolia and Caucasus region: Russian. CUP (Committee of Union and Progress) carried out operations against the Armenian community (although most Armenians remained loyal to the Ottoman state). Survivors in Lebanon. - Front in Istanbul and at Mesopotamia. - The head of the Persian Gulf: British. - Borders between Ottoman Syria and British-occupied Egypt: decisive front.
Ottoman Wartime Administration in Greater Syria To rally Muslim opinion against Britain and France: mobilized all the Islamic symbols. Ottoman empire = Universal protector of Islam?
Sharif Husayn ibn Ali and the Arab Revolt
Pledges and Counterpledges: Allied Plans for the Partition of the Ottoman Empire Number of agreements signed between the Entente for the partition of the Ottoman empire: - to serve the interests of the European members of the alliance - to prevent potential postwar disagreements * Constantinople agreement in March 1915: France, Britain, Russia never implemented * Sykes-Picot agreements in May 1916: divided up most of the Arab Middle East between them. Syria = France influence / Iraq = British / Palestine = under international administration. * Balfour Declaration November 1917: Britain agreed to favor the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine
II. The peace settlement
An Overview Process that led to the division and occupation of most of the former Ottoman territories. January 1919 in Paris to construct peace settlement European issues = highest priority : 4 separate treaties (Germany, Austria, Hungary and Bulgaria). Postwar settlement for the Middle East longer period of negociations - spheres of influence in southern Anatolia to France and Italy - Independent Armenian state in eastern Anatolia and Russian caucasia - San Remo conference: detached the Arab provinces from the Ottoman authority mandates Britain (enhanced its position in the Persian gulf, secured approaches to India, gained access to petroleum resources): Iraq and Palestine France: Syria
The Rise and fall of Faysal’s Syrian Kingdom (1918-1920) Amir Faysal forming an Arab government in Damascus: young Arab activists with dreams of a united Syria and Palestine March 1920: proclaimed Syria an independent state with Faysal as its king = birth of an Arab kingdom. To France = violation of the Franco-British agreement to divide the Arab areas July 1920: French forces defeated Faysal’s army, forced him into exile in Europe = the independent Arab state was eliminated 5 months after it was proclaimed. 1921: creation of the Transjordan
Conclusion: the end of the Ottoman order in the Middle East.
End of a political, social and religious order that had shaped their patterns of public behavior for 400 years. New states would seek to impose strict central control over rural tribes and urban measure of cultural uniformity. Ottoman empire to its subjects: belonging to a larger universal order represented by the Ottoman dynasty. Ottoman Empire = hope (existence and independence) that a distinctly Islamic state could survive in a world of expansionist European powers. What forces of political loyalty and cultural identity could replace it? the Arab had to forge new identities = major change from ottomanism. Postwar era
PART 3: THE STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE The interwar era to the end of the WWII
Much more complicated area to study after WWI. 19th century = 3 centers of authority (Egypt, Ottoman Empire, Iran) After peace settlements, new regional state system: 6 states = Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Iraq and Transjordan. Most of these states: European occupiers Interwar era in the Arab territories = period of Anglo-French dominance mandates (were inhabited by peoples not yet able to stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the modern world, placed under the tutelage of the advanced nations to assist them until they are able to stand alone.” imperial control, opportunity to secure their strategic interests in the Middle East.
Interwar, Arab political activity: achieving independence from foreign control. Other considerations = little attention. Contradiction among Arab political leaders: demanded independence but tried to remain in the good graces of the European authorities politics of the notables Create specific symbols of national identity, advocates of Pan-Arab unity or Islamic solidarity.
Interwar and WWII, new issue in addition to the confusion and tensions created by the end of the Ottoman order: the Zionist immigration into Palestine…
WWII = end of Anglo-French dominance in the Middle East official independence to all the major states of the region BUT aftermath of the WWII: the question of Palestine, revelation of the horror of the German concentration camps Jewish refugees 1948: creation of Israel = achievement of the Zionist objective.
Chapter 10: Authoritarian reform in Turkey and Iran
Immediately after WWI: vigorous programs of state-sponsored reform
I. The Ataturk era in Turkey II. Iran under Reza Shah III. Turkey and Iran during WWII: sovereignty and occupation