Parts of speech - Notatki - Język angielski - Część 3, Notatki'z Język angielski. University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
Maksymilian
Maksymilian22 March 2013

Parts of speech - Notatki - Język angielski - Część 3, Notatki'z Język angielski. University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn

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Notatki przedstawiające zagadnienia z zakresu języka angielskiego: parts of speech. Część 3.
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To jest jedynie podgląd.
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To jest jedynie podgląd.
Zobacz i pobierz cały dokument.
To jest jedynie podgląd.
Zobacz i pobierz cały dokument.
To jest jedynie podgląd.
Zobacz i pobierz cały dokument.

descriptive genitive – the word in the genitive case is being used as an adjective, describing an attribute or quality to the head noun. It doesn’t show a possession. For example: A women’s college (a college for women) The degree of doctor (a doctoral degree) ditransitive verb – is one that takes both a direct object and an indirect object. e.g. He gave her a letter. (‘The letter’ is the direct object, what he gave, and ‘her’ is indirect object, the person he gave it to) ergative verb – is a verb that can be both transitive and intransitive, where the subject of the intransitive verb is the same as the object of the transitive verb. For example, 'open' is an ergative verb because you can say 'The door opened' or 'She opened the door'. Ergative verbs can be divided into several categories:  Verbs suggesting a change of state – break, burst, melt, tear  Verbs of cooking – bake, boil, cook, fry  Verbs of movement – move, shake, sweep, turn  Verbs involving vehicles – drive, fly, reverse, sail

finite forms of the verb – are the forms where the verb shows tense, person or number. For example: I go; she goes; he went.genitive of measure – describe a person or thing by indicating measure (day, year, pound, etc.) Examples: ten day’s absence; five dollars' worth of candy; the height of the towerGROUP GENITIVE a construction in which the genitive ending 's is added to an entire phrase, esp. when added to a word other than the head of the noun phrase, as the woman who lives across the street's in That is the woman who lives across the street's cat or the people next-door's in The people next-door's house is for rent. Also called group' posses"sive.INFLECTION / INFLEXION Inflection , also spelled 'inflexion', is a system in which words' forms are altered by an affix. Nouns in English can be changed to show plurality, the 3rd person singular of most verbs is inflected by the addition of -s, etc. Grammar word change: a change in the form of a word, often an addition at the end of it, that indicates a particular grammatical function, e.g. the "s" added to most English nouns when they are plural Grammar altered form of word: an altered form of a word, e.g. one showing a change in tense, mood, gender, or number, or the part of the word that changes in this way INTERJECTIONAn interjection is a word or short phrase used in speech to gain attention, to exclaim, protest or command. Interjections can be used to show emotion such as surprise or shock. Interjections are often found at the beginning of a sentence, especially in speech, and are commonly followed by an exclamation mark or a comma. 1. exclamation expressing emotion: a sound, word, or phrase that expresses a strong emotion such as pain or surprise but otherwise has no meaning 2. comment made abruptly: something said loudly and abruptly, or something inserted in a text, especially something that interrupts what is being said or discussed

INTRANSITIVE VERB An intransitive verb is an action verb (that is, it is neither a linking verb nor an auxiliary verb) which does not have a direct object. The action is still being done, but it is not being done to anything or anyone else. Most verbs can be both intransitive and transitive depending on the sentence. The verb to go, however, is always intransitive. In most dictionaries the abbreviation v.i. means "verb, intransitive." Transitive: He runs a large corporation. (The verb runs has a direct object, corporation.) Intransitive: He runs around the block daily. (There is no direct object.) MASS NOUNS A mass noun has no plural form, often referring to a substance. EG: butter; smoke; money - These nouns have no plurals. Mass nouns are also called uncountable. A mass noun is a noun whose referents are not thought of as separate entities. It may have distinguishing features such as the following: * The inability to take a plural form * Cooccurrence with some determiners (such as some and much), but not others (such as the English many) Discussion Some nouns may permit treatment as either count or mass nouns. Example: In English, salad may be treated as either a count or mass noun, as evidenced by the acceptability of the following expressions: * many salads * much salad Examples (English) The word furniture is a mass noun. It cannot take the plural suffix -s: # * furnitures In addition, it can occur with some determiners, but not others: # the furniture

# much furniture # some furniture # * a furniture # * many furnitures MODAL VERBS Modal verbs are used to express ideas such as possibility, intention, permission, obligation and necessity. is a type of auxiliary verb that is used to indicate modality. The use of auxiliary verbs to express modality is a characteristic of Germanic languages. Its primary function is to express mood. CAN, COULD, WILL, WOULD, SHALL, SHOULD, OUGHT TO, DARE , MAY MIGHT, MUST, USED TO, NEED, HAD BETTER are some examples. eg: I would have told you, if you had wanted me to. eg: Yes, I can do that. MONOTRANSITIVE VERB A monotransitive verb is a verb that takes two arguments: a subject and a single direct object. For example, the verbs buy, bite, kill, break, and eat are monotransitive in English. a two-place verb which occurs with a direct object in addition to the subject.MOOD

1. a set of categories for which the verb is inflected in many languages, and that is typically used to indicate the syntactic relation of the clause in which the verb occurs to other clauses in the sentence, or the attitude of the speaker toward what he or she is saying, as certainty or uncertainty, wish or command, emphasis or hesitancy.

2. a set of syntactic devices in some languages that is similar to this set in function or meaning, involving the use of auxiliary words, as can, may, might

3. any of the categories of these sets: the Latin indicative, imperative, and subjunctive moods Mood shows the attitude of the speaker or the writer to the action or state described by the verb. 1) The Indicative is the verb used in ordinary statements and questions: She went home. Has she called yet? 2) The Imperative is used to give orders and instructions: Go home. Come and see me. 3) The Subjunctive is used to express doubts, wishes, etc. It is not used much in English any more and exists in a few phrases: If I were you, I'd speak to her about it straightaway. Be that as it may

MUTATION 1.the act or process of changing.2.a change or alteration, as in form or nature. 3.Phonetics. umlaut. 4.Linguistics. (in Celtic languages) syntactically determined morphophonemic phenomena that affect initial sounds of words. NON-FINITE VERB The non-finite forms of a verb have no tense, person or singular plural. The infinitive and present and past participles are the non-finite parts of a verb; To do; doing; done A non-finite verb has no subject, tense or number. The only non-finite verb forms are the infinitive (indicated by to), the gerund or the participle. For example:- I lived in Germany to improve my German. (To improve is in the infinitive form - improve is non- finite). In linguistics, a non-finite verb (or a verbal) is a verb form that is not limited by a subject and, more generally, is not fully inflected by categories that are marked inflectionally in language, such as tense, aspect, mood, number, gender, and person. As a result, a non-finite verb cannot generally serve as the main verb in an independent clause; rather, it heads a non-finite clause. By some accounts, a non-finite verb acts simultaneously as a verb and as another part of speech; it can take adverbs and certain kinds of verb arguments, producing a verbal phrase (i.e., non-finite clause), and this phrase then plays a different role—usually noun, adjective, or adverb—in a greater clause. This is the reason for the term verbal; non-finite verbs have traditionally been classified as verbal nouns, verbal adjectives, or verbal adverbs. English has three kinds of verbals: 1. participles, which function as adjectives; 2. gerunds, which function as nouns; and 3. infinitives, which have noun-like, adjective-like, and adverb-like functions. Each of these kinds of verbals is also used in various common constructs; for example, the past participle is used in forming the perfect aspect (to have done). NON-TERNMINATIVE VERBS The division of verbs into terminative and non-terminative depends on the aspectual characteristic in the lexical meaning of the verb which influences the use of aspect forms. Terminative verbs besides their specific meaning contain the idea that the action must be fulfilled and come to an end, reaching some point where it has logically to stop. These are such verbs as sit down, come, fall, stop, begin, open, close, shut, die, bring, find, etc.

Non-terminative, or durative verbs imply that actions or states expressed by these verbs may go on indefinitely without reaching any logically necessary final point. These are such verbs as carry, run, walk, sleep, stand, sit, live, know, suppose, talk, speak, etc. The end, which is simply an interruption of these actions, may be shown only by means of some adverbial modifier: He slept till nine in the morning. The last subclass comprises verbs that can function as both termi¬native and non-terminative (verbs of double aspectual meaning). The difference is clear from the context: Can you see well? (non-terminative) I see nothing there. (terminative) Noun: A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. A noun can function in a sentence as a subject, a direct object, an indirect object, a subject complement, an object complement, an appositive, an adjective or an adverb. Many common nouns, like "engineer" or "teacher," can refer to men or women. Once, many English nouns would change form depending on their gender -- for example, a man was called an "author" while a woman was called an "authoress" -- but this use of gender-specific nouns is very rare today. Those that are still used occasionally tend to refer to occupational categories, as in the following sentences. Most nouns change their form to indicate number by adding "-s" or "-es". There are other nouns which form the plural by changing the last letter before adding "s". Some words ending in "f" form the plural by deleting "f" and adding "ves," and words ending in "y" form the plural by deleting the "y" and adding "ies,". Other nouns form the plural irregularly. In the possessive case, a noun changes its form to show that it owns or is closely related to something else. Usually, nouns become possessive by adding a combination of an apostrophe and the letter "s." There are many different types of nouns: the proper noun, the common noun, the concrete noun, the abstract noun, the countable noun (also called the count noun), the non-countable noun (also called the mass noun), and the collective noun. You always write a proper noun with a capital letter, since the noun represents the name of a specific person, place, or thing. The names of days of the week, months, historical documents, institutions, organisations, religions, their holy texts and their adherents are proper nouns. A proper noun is the opposite of a common noun. (Jamaica, Monday, etc) A common noun is a noun referring to a person, place, or thing in a general sense -- usually, you should write it with a capital letter only when it begins a sentence. A common noun is the opposite of a proper noun. (town, summer, neighbourhood, etc) A concrete noun is a noun which names anything (or anyone) that you can perceive through your physical senses: touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell. A concrete noun is the opposite of a abstract noun. (judge, file, clerk, etc)

An abstract noun is a noun which names anything which you can not perceive through your five physical senses, and is the opposite of a concrete noun.(childhood, justice, schizophrenia, etc) A countable noun (or count noun) is a noun with both a singular and a plural form, and it names anything (or anyone) that you can count. You can make a countable noun plural and attach it to a plural verb in a sentence. Countable nouns are the opposite of non-countable nouns and collective nouns. (table, tree, baby) A non-countable noun (or mass noun) is a noun which does not have a plural form, and which refers to something that you could (or would) not usually count. A non-countable noun always takes a singular verb in a sentence. Non-countable nouns are similar to collective nouns, and are the opposite of countable nouns. (oxygen, furniture, etc) A collective noun is a noun naming a group of things, animals, or persons. You could count the individual members of the group, but you usually think of the group as a whole is generally as one unit. You need to be able to recognise collective nouns in order to maintain subject-verb agreement. A collective noun is similar to a non-countable noun, and is roughly the opposite of a countable noun. (jury, committee, class, etc) Nouns of Multitude:Nouns of multitude are pluralia tantum judging by their pattering. Though singular in form they are used with determiners that pattern either with all nouns or with plural nouns only and always take a plural verb: CATTLE, FOLK, GENTRY, ARMY, MILITIA, KINDRED, PEOPLE, POLICE, VERMIN, YOUTH. In other words noun of multitude is the name of something that contains many individual things or people. Numeral:A numeral is a word, functioning most typically as an adjective or pronoun, that expresses a number, and  relation to the number, such as one of the following:

Quantity Sequence Frequency Fraction Here are some kinds of numerals: A cardinal numeral is a numeral of the class whose members are -considered basic in form -used in counting, and -used in expressing how many objects are referred to.(one, ten, eighty) A distributive numeral is a numeral which expresses a group of the number specified. -By the dozen -In pairs A multiplicative numeral is a numeral that expresses how many fold or how many times. -once -twice

-thrice An ordinal numeral is a numeral belonging to a class whose members designate positions in a sequence. -First -Second -Third A partitive numeral is a numeral that expresses a fraction. -half -third Object:Object is word that follows verb and completes the verb's meaning. Object is always noun or pronoun. Two kinds of objects follow verbs: direct objects and indirect objects.To determine if a verb has a direct object, isolate the verb and make it into a question by placing "whom?" or "what?" after it. The answer, if there is one, is the direct object: The advertising executive drove a flashy red Porsche. Objective Case:Objective case is the case or function of a pronoun when it is the direct or indirect object of a verb, the object of a preposition, the subject of an infinitive, or an appositive to an object. The objective (or accusative) forms of English pronouns are me, us, you, him, her, it, them, whom and whomever.In other words when a pronoun is the object of the verb or preposition it is in the objective case. Examples: To know her was to love her. That which does not kill us makes us stronger. The news hit them hard. (direct object of hit) Objective Genitive:In grammar, an objective genitive is a use of the genitive case to express an objective relationship. In objective genitive the genitive modifies a noun from which we can infer an action worked on the genitive modifier: Mary’s engagement, your father’s illness, his tormentors, the Hundred Years' War, a man's world.Ordinals:In linguistics, ordinal numbers are the words representing the rank of a number with respect to some order, in particular order or position (i.e. first, second, third, etc.). Its use may refer to size, importance, chronology, etc. They are adjectives and, at least in English, precede the nouns they are modifying.Ordinal numbers are alternatively written in English with numerals and letter suffixes: 1st, 2nd or 2d, 3rd or 3d, 4th, 11th, 21st, 477th, etc.

Participle:In linguistics, a participle is a derivative of a non-finite verb, which can be used in compound tenses or voices, or as a modifier. Participles often share properties with other parts of speech, in particular adjectives and nouns.English verbs have two participles:  called variously the present, active, imperfect, or progressive participle, it is identical in form

to the gerund; the term present participle is sometimes used to include the gerund. The term gerund-participle is also used.

 called variously the past, passive, or perfect participle, it is usually identical to the verb's preterite (past tense) form, though in irregular verbs the two usually differ.

The present participle in English is active. It has the following uses: forming the progressive aspect: Jim was sleeping. modifying a noun, with active sense: Let sleeping dogs lie. modifying a verb or sentence: Broadly speaking, the project was successful. The present participle in English has the same form as the gerund, but the gerund acts as a noun rather than a verb or a modifier. The word sleeping in Your job description does not include sleeping is a gerund and not a present participle. The past participle has both active and passive uses: forming the perfect aspect: The chicken has eaten. forming the passive voice: The chicken was eaten. modifying a noun, with active sense: our fallen comrades modifying a noun, with passive sense: the attached files modifying a verb or sentence, with passive sense: Seen from this perspective, the problem presents no easy solution. As noun-modifiers, participles usually precede the noun (like adjectives), but in many cases they can or must follow it: The visiting dignitaries devoured the baked apples. Please bring all the documents required. The difficulties encountered were nearly insurmountable. Particle:A particle, in grammar, is a function word that is not assignable to any of the traditional grammatical word classes (such as pronouns, articles or conjunctions). The term is a catch-all term for a heterogeneous set of elements and lacks a precise universal definition. It is mostly used for words that help to encode grammatical categories (such as negation, mood or case) and are uninflected. In English, the infinitive marker to and the negator not are examples of words that are usually regarded as particles. Depending on its context, the meaning of the term may overlap with such notions or meanings as "morpheme", "marker", or even "adverb" (another catch-all term). Like many linguistic concepts, the precise content of the notion is very language-specific. Under the strictest definition, which demands that a particle be an uninflected word, English deictics like this and that would not be classed as such (since they have plurals), and neither would Romance articles (since they are inflected for number and gender).

Phrase:In grammar, a phrase is a group of two or more grammatically linked words without a subject and predicate that functions as a single unit in the syntax of a sentence.The group "teacher both students and" is not a phrase because the words have no grammatical relationship to one another. Similarly, the group "bay the across" is not a phrase. In both cases, the words need to be rearranged in order to create phrases. The group "both teachers and students" and the group "across the bay" are both phrases. You use a phrase to add information to a sentence and can perform the functions of a subject, an object, a subject or object complement, a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. She bought some spinach when she went to the corner store. Lightning flashed brightly in the night sky. They heard high pitched cries in the middle of the night. A verb phrase consists of a verb, its direct and/or indirect objects, and any adverb, adverb phrases, or adverb clauses which happen to modify it. The predicate of a clause or sentence is always a verb phrase: He did not have all the ingredients the recipe called for; therefore, he decided to make something else. A noun phrase consists of a pronoun or noun with any associated modifiers, including adjectives, adjective phrases, adjective clauses, and other nouns in the possessive case. Like a noun, a noun phrase can act as a subject, as the object of a verb or verbal, as a subject or object complement, or as the object of a preposition, as in the following examples: subject Small children often insist that they can do it by themselves. object of a verb To read quickly and accurately is Eugene's goal. An adjective phrase is any phrase which modifies a noun or pronoun. You often construct adjective phrases using participles or prepositions together with their objects: I was driven mad by the sound of my neighbour's constant piano practising. A prepositional phrase can also be an adverb phrase, functioning as an adverb, as in the following sentences. She bought some spinach when she went to the corner store. Possessive Genitive: In grammar, the genitive case or possessive case (also called the second case) is the case that marks a noun as modifying another noun. It often marks a noun as being the possessor of another noun but it can also indicate various relationships other than possession; certain verbs may take arguments in the genitive case. Modern English does not typically mark nouns for a genitive case morphologically — rather, it uses the clitic 's or a preposition (usually of) — but the personal pronouns do have distinct possessive forms. Possessive Case: The good news is that the genitive case is used less and less in English today. You may still hear someone say something like "The mother of the bride," but it could equally be; "The bride's mother."

However, the possessive pattern ('s) is generally used when indicate a relation of ownership or association with a person, rather than a thing. For example: Lynne's web site kept growing larger and larger. Genitive Case You should still use the genitive case when talking about things that belong to other things. For example: The door of the car. The content of the website.

Predicate: Predicate is the head of a clause and says something about the subject. In traditional grammar, a predicate is one of the two main parts of a sentence (the other being the subject, which the predicate modifies). In current linguistic semantics, a predicate is an expression that can be true of something. Thus, the expressions "is yellow" or "like broccoli" are true of those things that are yellow or like broccoli, respectively. The latter notion is closely related to the notion of a predicate in formal logic, and includes more expressions than the former one, like, for example, nouns and some kinds of adjectives. Predicates can be classified as either verbal or nominal. A verbal predicate indicates some sort of action. In the sample sentence, "reads the book" is a verbal predicate. A nominal predicate uses a copulative verb to identify or describe the subject. In the sentence "The woman is happy," the nominal predicate is "is happy" In the following examples, the predicate is underlined. She dances. (verb only predicate) John reads the book. (direct object) She listened to the radio. (prepositional object) Classes of predicate:

1. Stage-level predicates- true of a temporal stage of its subject. For example, if John is "hungry", that typically lasts a certain amount of time, and not his entire lifespan.

2. Individual-level predicates- is true throughout the existence of an individual. For example, if John is "smart", this is a property of him, regardless which particular point in time we consider.

3. Kind-level predicates- is true of a kind of thing, but cannot be applied to individual members of the kind. An example of this is the predicate "are widespread." One can't meaningfully say of a particular individual John that he is widespread. One may only say this of kinds, as in: Humans are widespread.

4. Collective vs. distributive predicates- Collective predicates require their subjects to be somehow plural, while distributive ones don't. An example of a collective predicate is "formed a line". This predicate can only stand in a nexus with a plural subject: The students- The student formed a line.

5. Activities: Activities are like states in presenting events as unbounded in time, but they differ from states in involving some kind of change. Examples of activity predicates include "run in the park", "snore loudly", "fall through the air", etc.

6. Achievements: Achievement predicates are like accomplishments lacking a process part. They denote punctual change. Examples of achievement predicates are "reach the top", "win the race", "find his glasses".

Predicative:An element of the predicate of a sentence which supplements the subject or object by means of the verb. Predicatives may be nominal or adjectival. A nominal predicative is a noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and renames the subject. In grammar, a predicative is an element of the predicate of a sentence which supplements the subject or object by means of the verb. A predicative may be nominal or adjectival. If the complement after a linking verb is a noun or a pronoun, it is called a predicate nominative. If the complement after a linking verb is an adjective, it is called a predicate adjective. He seems nice. (adjectival predicative of the subject) Bob is a postman. (nominal predicative of the subject) We painted the door white. (adjectival predicative of the object) They elected him president. (nominal predicative of the object) Predicatives may also be termed complements. Although sometimes object predicatives may be omitted leaving a well-formed sentence, in many instances they are essential to the meaning of the sentence: That shrimp dish made him sick. They called her a thief. I consider him my friend. Prefix: A prefix (affix) is a word, or letter(s) placed at the beginning of another word (a base word) to adjust or qualify its usage or meaning. English prefixes are affixes (i.e., bound morphemes that provide the primary meaning) that are added before either simple roots or complex bases (or operands) consisting of (a) a root and other affixes, (b) multiple roots, or (c) multiple roots and other affixes. Examples of these follow:  undo (consisting of prefix un- and root do)  untouchable (consisting of prefix un-, root touch, and suffix –able  non-childproof (consisting of prefix non-, root child, and root proof)  non-childproofable (consisting of prefix non-, root child, root proof, and suffix -able)

English words may consist of multiple prefixes: anti-pseudo-classicism (containing both an anti- prefix and a pseudo- prefix). In English, all prefixes are derivational. This contrasts with English suffixes, which may be either derivational or inflectional. (In linguistics, derivation is "Used to form new words, as with happi-ness and un-happy from happy, or determination from determine. A contrast is intended with the process of inflection, which uses another kind of affix in order to form variants of the same word, as with determine/determine-s/determin-ing/determin-ed.)

As is often the case with derivational morphology, many English prefixes can only be added to bases of particular lexical categories (or "parts of speech"). For example, the prefix re- meaning "again, back" is only added to verb bases as in rebuild, reclaim, reuse, resell, re-evaluate, resettle. It cannot be added to bases of other lexical categories. Thus, examples of re- plus a noun base (such as the ungrammatical *rehusband, *remonopoly) or re- plus an adjective base (*renatural, *rewise) are virtually unattested.[1] These selectional restrictions on what base a prefix can be attached to can be used to distinguish between otherwise identical-sounding prefixes. For instance, there are two different un- prefixes in English: one meaning "not, opposite of", the other meaning "reverse action, deprive of, release from". The first prefix un- "not" is attached to adjective and participle bases while the second prefix un- "reverse action" is attached to either verb or noun bases. Thus, English can have two words that are pronounced and spelled the same and have the same lexical category but have different meanings, different prefixes, a different internal morphological structure, and different internal bases that the prefixes are attached to: unlockable "not able to be locked" unlockable "able to be unlocked" In the first unlockable "not able to be locked", the prefix un- "not" is attached to an adjective base lockable (which, in turn, is composed of lock + -able). This word has the following internal structure: [ un [ [ lock ]verb able ]adj ]adj In the second unlockable "able to be unlocked", the prefix un- "reverse action" is attached to a verb base lock, resulting in the derived verb unlock. Subsequently, the -able suffix is added after the newly created unlock adjective base deriving the adjective unlockable. This word has the following internal structure: [ [ un [ lock ]verb ]verb able ]adj Preposition :Prepositions are a class of words that indicate relationships between nouns, pronouns and other words in a sentence. Most often they come before a noun. They never change their form, regardless of the case, gender etc. of the word they are referring to. Some common prepositions are: Prepositions typically come before a noun: For example:

about 

above 

across 

after 

against 

along 

among 

by 

despite 

down 

during 

except 

for 

from

outside 

over 

past 

since 

through 

through out 

-after class -at home -before Tuesday -in London -on fire -with pleasure A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence. For example: -The book is on the table. -The book is beside the table. -She read the book during class. In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun "book" in space or in time. Prepositions are classified as simple or compound. Simple prepositions are single word prepositions. These are all showed above. For example: The book is on the table. Compound prepositions are more than one word. in between and because of are prepositions made up of two words - in front of, on behalf of are prepositions made up of three words. For example: -The book is in between War and Peace and The Lord of the Rings. -The book is in front of the clock. Pronoun:In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun (including a noun phrase consisting of a single noun) with or without a determiner, such as you and they in English. Types of pronouns: Personal pronouns stand in place of the names of people or things:

Subjective pronouns are used when the person or thing is the subject of the sentence or clause.

Example: I like to eat chips but she does not. .

Intensive pronouns re-emphasize a noun or pronoun that has already been mentioned. English uses

the same forms as for the reflexive pronouns; for example: I did it myself

Objective pronouns are used when the person or thing is the object of the sentence or clause.

Example: John likes me but not her.

Direct and indirect object pronouns. English uses the same forms for both; for example: Mary loves him (direct object); Mary sent him a letter (indirect object). Reflexive pronouns are used when a person or thing acts on itself. Example: John cut himself.

Reciprocal pronouns refer to a reciprocal relationship. Example:They do not like each other.

Prepositional pronouns come after a preposition. for example: Mary looked at him.

Disjunctive pronouns are used in isolation, or in certain other special grammatical contexts. No

distinct forms exist in English; for example: To whom does this belong? Me.

Dummy pronouns are used when grammatical rules require a noun (or pronoun), but none is

semantically required. Example: It is raining.

Weak pronouns.

Possessive pronouns are used to indicate possession or ownership.

In strict sense, the possessive pronouns are only those that act syntactically as nouns. Example: Those

clothes are mine.

Often, though, the term "possessive pronoun" is also applied to the so-called possessive

adjectives (or possessive determiners). For example, in English: I lost my wallet. They are not strictly

speaking pronouns because they do not substitute for a noun or noun phrase, and as such, some

grammarians classify these terms in a separate lexical category called determiners (they have a

syntactic role close to that of adjectives, always qualifying a noun).

Demonstrative pronouns distinguish the particular objects or people that are referred to from other

possible candidates. Example: I shall take these.

Indefinite pronouns refer to general categories of people or things.Example: Anyone can do that.

Distributive pronouns are used to refer to members of a group separately, rather than collectively.

Example: To each his own.

Negative pronouns indicate the non-existence of people or things. English example: Nobody thinks

that.

Relative pronouns refer back to people or things previously mentioned. English example: People who

smoke should quit now.

Indefinite relative pronouns have some of the properties of both relative pronouns and indefinite

pronouns. They have a sense of "referring back", but the person or thing to which they refer has not

previously been explicitly named. English example: I know what I like.

Interrogative pronouns ask which person or thing is meant. Example: Whodid that?

Proper Noun:A proper noun is a noun which names a specific person, place, or thing. Every noun can

further be classified as common or proper. A proper noun has two distinctive features:

1) it will name a specific [usually a one-of-a-kind] item 2) it will begin with a capital letter no matter where it occurs in a sentence.

Sentence:In linguistics, a sentence is a grammatical unit of one or more words, bearing minimal

syntactic relation to the words that precede or follow it, often preceded and followed in speech by

pauses, having one of a small number of characteristic intonation patterns, and typically expressing an

independent statement, question, request, command, etc.Sentences are generally characterized in most

languages by the presence of a finite verb.

Components of a sentence: A simple complete sentence consists of a subject and a predicate. The subject is typically a noun phrase, though other kinds of phrases (such as gerund phrases) work as well, and some languages allow subjects to be omitted. The predicate is a finite verb phrase: it's a finite verb together with zero or more objects, zero or more complements, and zero or more adverbials. See also copula for the consequences of this verb on the theory of sentence structure. Clauses: A clause consists of a subject and a verb. There are two types of clauses: independent and subordinate (dependent). An independent clause consists of a subject verb and also demonstrates a complete thought: for example, "I am sad." A subordinate clause consists of a subject and a verb, but demonstrates an incomplete thought: for example, "Because I had to really move." Classification: 1.By structure: -A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause with no dependent clauses. -A compound sentence consists of multiple independent clauses with no dependent clauses. These clauses are joined together using conjunctions, punctuation, or both. -A complex sentence consists of one or more independent clauses with at least one dependent clause. -A complex-compound sentence (or compound-complex sentence) consists of multiple independent clauses, at least one of which has at least one dependent clause. 2. By purpose -A declarative sentence or declaration, the most common type, commonly makes a statement: I am going home. -A negative sentence or negation denies that a statement is true: I am not going home. -An interrogative sentence or question is commonly used to request information — When are you going to work? — but sometimes not; see rhetorical question. -An exclamatory sentence or exclamation is generally a more emphatic form of statement: What a wonderful day this is! -An imperative sentence or command tells someone to do something: Go to work at 7:30 tomorrow morning.

Split infinitive:The infinitive of a verb is the form given in the dictionary where no specific subject is indicated. In English it is always characterized by the word 'to':e.g. to work, to pay, to eat, to find, to inhabit, to bribe... A 'split infinitive' occurs when the 'to' is separated from its verb by other words. The most famous split infinitive comes at the beginning of every episode of Star Trek, when the crew's continuing mission is announced as: "to boldly go" (rather than "to go boldly"). Split infinitives have, traditionally, been regarded by some commentators as anathema, something to be avoided at all costs. There is no rational basis for this rule; splitting infinitives is commonplace in spoken language, and even in written English it may be clearer or more elegant to do so. In general, however, split infinitives should be avoided in the formal register of an essay or other piece of academic writing, unless the alternative seems excessively awkward or clumsy. Usually it is sufficient to move the offending word so that it comes either before or after the infinitive. Harry's teacher told him to never look back. Harry's teacher told him never to look back. She told me I had to quickly finish this sandwich. She told me I had to finish this sandwich quickly. There are occasions when splitting the infinitice is far clearer than any alternative phrasing: Ex. That was the only way to more than double his salary. Stative :Denoting a verb describing a state rather than an activity, act, or event, such as know and want as opposed to leave and throw. A stative verb is one which asserts that one of its arguments has a particular property (possibly in relation to its other arguments). Statives differ from other aspectual classes of verbs in that they are static; they have no duration and no distinguished endpoint. Verbs which are not stative are often called dynamic verbs. Ex. I am tired. I have two children. Stem :In grammar, the part of a verb or noun that remains unchanged by tense and agreement.In linguistics, a stem (sometimes also theme) is the part of a word that is common to all its inflected variants. Stems are often roots, e.g. atomic, its root is atom, but its stem is atom·ic. A stem can be morphologically complex, as seen with compound words (cf. the compound nouns meat ball or bottle opener) or words with derivational morphemes (cf. the derived verbs black-en or standard-ize). Thus, the stem of the complex English noun photographer is photo·graph·er, but not photo. For another example, the root of the English verb form destabilized is stabil-, a form of stable that does not occur alone; the stem is de·stabil·ize, which includes the derivational affixes de- and -ize, but not the inflectional past tense suffix -(e)d. That is, a stem is that part of a word that affixes attach to.

Subject :Traditionally, one of the two main parts of a sentence, the other being the predicate. In grammar, the noun or pronoun that carries out the action of the verb in a sentence, as in ‘The dog chased the cat’. The subject also controls the form and number of the verb. Subjects are most difficult to identify when they are implied, as in ‘Save me!’, where the subject is ‘you’. A complete and a simple subject : The complete subject is who or what is doing the verb plus all of the modifiers [descriptive words] that go with it. Read the sentence below: The big, hungry, green Martian grabbed a student from the back row. Who did the grabbing? The Martian, of course. But this Martian wasn't petite, satisfied, and blue. No, this one was big, hungry, and green. The complete subject, then, is the huge, hairy, hungry, green Martian. The simple subject, on the other hand, is the who or what that is doing the verb without any description. Take a look at this example: The bright copper coin sparkled on the sidewalk. What did the sparkling? Obviously, the bright copper coin. The, bright and copper, however, are just description that distinguishes this coin from one that is, let's say, tarnished and silver. The simple subject is only the word coin. subjective genitive- We have the subjective genitive when the noun in the genitive produces the action, being therefore related as subject to the verbal idea of the noun modified. Example: the boy’s application → the boy applied for (…) her parents’ consent → the parents consented substantivization is the result of ellipsis (syntactical shortening ) when a word combination with a semantically strong attribute loses its semantically weak noun (man, person etc), e.g. «a grown-up person» is shortened to «a grown-up». In cases of perfect substantivization the attribute takes the paradigm of a countable noun , e.g. a criminal, criminals, a criminal’s (mistake) , criminals’ (mistakes). Such words are used in a sentence in the same function as nouns, e.g. I am fond of musicals. (musical comedies). There are also two types of partly substantivized adjectives: those which have only the plural form and have the meaning of collective nouns, such as: sweets, news, empties, finals, greens, those which have only the singular form and are used with the definite article. They also have the meaning of collective nouns and denote a class, a nationality, a group of people, e.g. the rich, the English, the dead . suffix- in grammar, a suffix (also postfix, ending) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word. Common examples are case endings, which indicate the grammatical case of nouns or adjectives, and verb endings, which form the conjugation of verbs. Suffixes can carry grammatical information (inflectional suffixes), or lexical information (derivational suffixes). An inflectional suffix is sometimes called a desinence. Some examples from English:

Girls, where the suffix -s marks the plural. He makes, where suffix -s marks the third person singular present tense. He closed, where the suffix -ed marks the past tense.

suppletive form -in linguistics and etymology, suppletion is traditionally understood as the use of one word as the inflected form of another word when the two words are not cognate. For those learning a

language, suppletive forms will be seen as "irregular" or even "highly irregular". The term "suppletion" implies that a gap in the paradigm was filled by a form "supplied" by a different paradigm. Instances of suppletion are overwhelmingly restricted to the most commonly-used lexical items in a language. terminative verb- besides their specific meaning contain the idea that the action must be fulfilled and come to an end, reaching some point where it has logically to stop. These are such verbs as sit down,come,fall,stop, begin, open, close, shut, die, bring, find, etc. transitive verb- in syntax, a transitive verb is a verb that requires both a direct subject and one or more objects. Some examples of sentences with transitive verbs:

 Harry sees Adam. (Adam is the direct object of "sees")

 You lifted the bag. (bag is the direct object of "lifted")

 I punished you. (you is the direct object of "punished")

 I give you the book. (book is the direct object of "give" and "you" is the non-prepositional indirect object of "give")

utterance- is a complete unit of speech in spoken language. It is generally but not always bounded by silence. It can be represented and delineated in written language in many ways. Note that utterances do not exist in written language, only their representations do. verb- in syntax, a verb is a word (part of speech) that usually denotes an action (bring, read), an occurrence (decompose, glitter), or a state of being (exist, stand). Depending on the language, a verb may vary in form according to many factors, possibly including its tense, aspect, mood and voice. It may also agree with the person, gender, and/or number of some of its arguments (subject, object, etc.). The number of arguments that a verb takes is called its valency or valence. Verbs can be classified according to their valency.

 Intransitive (valency = 1): the verb only has a subject. For example: "he runs", "it falls".

 Transitive (valency = 2): the verb has a subject and a direct object. For example: "she eats fish", "we hunt deer".

 Ditransitive (valency = 3): the verb has a subject, a direct object and an indirect or secondary object. For example: "I gave her a book," "She sent me flowers."

voice- in grammar, the voice (also called gender or diathesis) of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or actor of the verb, the verb is in the active voice. When the subject is the patient, target or undergoer of the action, it is said to be in the passive voice. For example, in the sentence:

The cat ate the mouse. the verb "ate" is in the active voice, but in the sentence:

The mouse was eaten by the cat. the verbal phrase "was eaten" is passive. voicing- in English as in Polish language also we distinguish two voices: active and passive. The active voice is more standard in English than it's counterpart. This involves the subject of the verb to be the one doing the action (in a manner of speaking), whereas in the Passive voice, the "subject" would be similar to the object of an active sentence. Compare:

"I threw the remote." Active voice, I-subject, remote-object, "The remote was thrown (by me)." Passive, Although technically the remote is the subject of the second sentence, it is used as a object. The use of the Passive voice is to be able to hide the one doing the action. If you said, "The remote was thrown," it could mean you don't know who threw it, you are trying not to assume who threw it, or you're trying not to blame someone for throwing it. That also means you can omit it if you don't know the who it is. You can say, "The remote was thrown," "The ball was hit," or "The chair was moved," which are all perfect passive constructions without a "subject" arguement. To form the Passive voice, one must use a form of the verb to be, and then add the verb with it's perfect form, in most cases -ed endings.

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