Parts of speech - Notatki - Język angielski - Część 2, Notatki'z Język angielski. University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
Maksymilian
Maksymilian22 March 2013

Parts of speech - Notatki - Język angielski - Część 2, Notatki'z Język angielski. University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn

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Notatki przedstawiające zagadnienia z zakresu języka angielskiego: parts of speech. Część 2.
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? Will they be watching TV?

USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Future

Use the Future Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the future will be interrupted by a shorter action in the future. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time. Examples:

 I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight.  I will be waiting for you when your bus arrives.  I am going to be staying at the Madison Hotel, if anything happens and you need to contact

me.  He will be studying at the library tonight, so he will not see Jennifer when she arrives.

Notice in the examples above that the interruptions (marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because the interruptions are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.

USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption in the Future

In USE 1, described above, the Future Continuous is interrupted by a short action in the future. In addition to using short actions as interruptions, you can also use a specific time as an interruption. Examples:

 Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to be eating dinner. I WILL BE IN THE PROCESS OF EATING DINNER.

 At midnight tonight, we will still be driving through the desert. WE WILL BE IN THE PROCESS OF DRIVING THROUGH THE DESERT.

REMEMBER In the Simple Future, a specific time is used to show the time an action will begin or end. In the Future Continuous, a specific time interrupts the action. Examples:

 Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to eat dinner. I AM GOING TO START EATING AT 6 PM.

 Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to be eating dinner. I AM GOING TO START EARLIER AND I WILL BE IN THE PROCESS OF EATING DINNER AT 6 PM.

USE 3 Parallel Actions in the Future

When you use the Future Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions will be happening at the same time. The actions are parallel. Examples:

 I am going to be studying and he is going to be making dinner.  Tonight, they will be eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time.

 While Ellen is reading, Tim will be watching television. NOTICE "IS READING" BECAUSE OF THE TIME CLAUSE CONTAINING "WHILE."

USE 4 Atmosphere in the Future In English, we often use a series of Parallel Actions to describe atmosphere at a specific point in the future. Example:

 When I arrive at the party, everybody is going to be celebrating. Some will be dancing. Others are going to be talking. A few people will be eating pizza, and several people are going to be drinking beer. They always do the same thing.

REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses Like all future tenses, the Future Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Continuous, Present Continuous is used. Examples:

 While I am going to be finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner. Not Correct  While I am finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner. Correct

AND REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Future Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Future. Examples:

 Jane will be being at my house when you arrive. Not Correct  Jane will be at my house when you arrive. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc. Examples:

 You will still be waiting for her when her plane arrives.  Will you still be waiting for her when her plane arrives?  You are still going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives.  Are you still going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE Examples:

 At 8:00 PM tonight, John will be washing the dishes. ACTIVE  At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washed by John. PASSIVE  At 8:00 PM tonight, John is going to be washing the dishes. ACTIVE  At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washed by John. PASSIVE

NOTE: Passive forms of the Future Continuous are not common. 63. Future perfect tense – formation, meaning and usage. Future Perfect has two different forms: "will have done" and "be going to have done." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect forms are usually interchangeable.

FORM Future Perfect with "Will" [will have + past participle] Examples:

 You will have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.  Will you have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.?  You will not have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.

FORM Future Perfect with "Be Going To" [am/is/are + going to have + past participle] Examples:

 You are going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.  Are you going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.?  You are not going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.

NOTE: It is possible to use either "will" or "be going to" to create the Future Perfect with little or no difference in meaning. Positive sentences:

Subject +

Auxiliary verb +

Auxiliary verb +

Past participle

I/a dog etc. will have gone, seen, etc. Questions (interrogative sentences):

Auxiliary verb +

Subject +

Auxiliary verb +

Past participle ?

will I/a dog etc. have gone, seen, etc. Negative sentences:

Subject +

Auxiliary verb +

Auxiliary verb +

Past participle

I/a dog etc. won't have gone, seen, etc.

USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Future

The Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future. It can also show that something will happen before a specific time in the future. Examples:

 By next November, I will have received my promotion.  By the time he gets home, she is going to have cleaned the entire house.  I am not going to have finished this test by 3 o'clock.  Will she have learned enough Chinese to communicate before she moves to Beijing?  Sam is probably going to have completed the proposal by the time he leaves this afternoon.  By the time I finish this course, I will have taken ten tests.  How many countries are you going to have visited by the time you turn 50?

Notice in the examples above that the reference points (marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because the interruptions are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.

USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Future (Non-Continuous Verbs)

With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Future Perfect to show that something will continue up until another action in the future. Examples:

 I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave.  By Monday, Susan is going to have had my book for a week.

Although the above use of Future Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non- continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.

REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses Like all future forms, the Future Perfect cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Perfect, Present Perfect is used. Examples:

 I am going to see a movie when I will have finished my homework. Not Correct  I am going to see a movie when I have finished my homework. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc. Examples:

 You will only have learned a few words.  Will you only have learned a few words?  You are only going to have learned a few words.  Are you only going to have learned a few words?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE Examples:

 They will have completed the project before the deadline. ACTIVE  The project will have been completed before the deadline. PASSIVE  They are going to have completed the project before the deadline. ACTIVE  The project is going to have been completed before the deadline. PASSIVE

64. Future perfect continuous tense – formation, meaning and usage. Future Perfect Continuous has two different forms: "will have been doing " and "be going to have been doing." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect Continuous forms are usually interchangeable.

FORM Future Perfect Continuous with "Will" [will have been + present participle] Examples:

 You will have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.  Will you have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?  You will not have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.

FORM Future Perfect Continuous with "Be Going To" [am/is/are + going to have been + present participle] Examples:

 You are going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.  Are you going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?  You are not going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally

arrives. NOTE: It is possible to use either "will" or "be going to" to create the Future Perfect Continuous with little or no difference in meaning. Positive sentences:

Subject +

Auxiliary verb +

Auxiliary verb +

Auxiliary verb +

Present participle

I/a dog etc. will have been going, doing (verb + ing) Negative sentences:

Auxiliary verb +

Subject +

Auxiliary verb +

Auxiliary verb +

Present participle

will I/a dog etc. have been going, doing (verb + ing) Questions (interrogative sentences):

Subject +

Auxiliary verb +

Auxiliary verb +

Auxiliary verb +

Present participle ?

I/a dog etc. won't have been going, doing (verb + ing)

USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Future

We use the Future Perfect Continuous to show that something will continue up until a particular event or time in the future. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Friday" are all durations which can be used with the Future Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous and the Past Perfect Continuous; however, with Future Perfect Continuous, the duration stops at or before a reference point in the future. Examples:

 They will have been talking for over an hour by the time Thomas arrives.  She is going to have been working at that company for three years when it finally closes.  James will have been teaching at the university for more than a year by the time he leaves

for Asia.  How long will you have been studying when you graduate?

 We are going to have been driving for over three days straight when we get to Anchorage.  A: When you finish your English course, will you have been living in New Zealand for over

a year? B: No, I will not have been living here that long.

Notice in the examples above that the reference points (marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because these future events are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.

USE 2 Cause of Something in the Future

Using the Future Perfect Continuous before another action in the future is a good way to show cause and effect. Examples:

 Jason will be tired when he gets home because he will have been jogging for over an hour.  Claudia's English will be perfect when she returns to Germany because she is going to have

been studying English in the United States for over two years.

Future Continuous vs. Future Perfect Continuous If you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes," "for two weeks" or "since Friday," many English speakers choose to use the Future Continuous rather than the Future Perfect Continuous. Be careful because this can change the meaning of the sentence. Future Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Future Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the future. Study the examples below to understand the difference. Examples:

 He will be tired because he will be exercising so hard. THIS SENTENCE EMPHASIZES THAT HE WILL BE TIRED BECAUSE HE WILL BE EXERCISING AT THAT EXACT MOMENT IN THE FUTURE.

 He will be tired because he will have been exercising so hard. THIS SENTENCE EMPHASIZES THAT HE WILL BE TIRED BECAUSE HE WILL HAVE BEEN EXERCISING FOR A PERIOD OF TIME. IT IS POSSIBLE THAT HE WILL STILL BE EXERCISING AT THAT MOMENT OR THAT HE WILL JUST HAVE FINISHED.

REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses Like all future forms, the Future Perfect Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Perfect Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous is used. Examples:

 You won't get a promotion until you will have been working here as long as Tim. Not Correct

 You won't get a promotion until you have been working here as long as Tim. Correct

AND REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Future Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Future Perfect . Examples:

 Ned will have been having his driver's license for over two years. Not Correct  Ned will have had his driver's license for over two years. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc. Examples:

 You will only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.  Will you only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives?  You are only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.  Are you only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE Examples:

 The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished. ACTIVE

 The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished. PASSIVE

 The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished. ACTIVE

 The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished. PASSIVE

NOTE: Passive forms of the Future Perfect Continuous are not common. 65. Use of the passive voice. We form the passive with the verb “to bo” and the past participle of the main verb. The present perfect continous, the future cont., the past perfect cont., and the future perfect cont. are not normally used in the passive. We can use the verb to be instead of the verb to be in everyday speech when we talk about things that happen by accident or unexpectedly. USE We use the passive:

1. when the person who carries out the action is unknown, unimportant or obvious from the context.

- My flat was broken into last week. (We don’t know who broke into the flat) - Coffee beans are grown in Brazil. (It is not important to know who grows the coffee)

2. when the action itself is more important than the person who carries it out, as in news headlines, newspapers articles, formal notices, instructions, advertisments, processes, etc.

- The new hospital wil be opened by the Queen on May 15th. (formal notice) - Then, the milk is taken to factory where it is pasteurised. (process)

3. When we refer to an unpleasant event and we do not want to say who or what is to blame. - A lot of mistakes have been made. (instead of ‘You have made a lot of mistakes’.)

To change a sentence from the active into the passive:

a) the object of the active sentence becomes the subject in the passive sentence b) the active verb remains in the same tense, but changes into a passive form c) the subject of the active sentence becomes the agent, and is either introduced with the prepoistion ‘by’ or omitted.

Active – Tom (subject) invited (verb) me (object). Passive – I (subject) was invited (verb) by Tom (agent).

Only transitive verbs (verbs fallowed by an object) can be changed into the passive Active: Grandma knitted my jumper. (transitive verb) Passive: My jumper was knitted by Grandma. But: They travelled to Lisbon last summer (intransitive verb) Some transitive verbs such as have, fit, suit, resemble, etc. cannot be changed into passive. We use by + agent to say who or what carries out the action. We use with + instrument/material/ingredient to say what the agent used. The pancakes were made by Claire. They were made with eggs, flour and milk. The agent is often omitted in the passive sentence when the subject of the active sentence is one of the following words: people, one, someone/somebody, they, he, etc. Active: Somebody has rearranged furniture. Passive: The furniture has been rearranged. But: The agent is not omitted when it is a specific or important person or when it is essential to the meaning of the sentence. The “Mona Lisa” was painted by da Vinci.

66. The Indicative Mood The indicative mood is the most common and is used to express facts and opinions or to make inquiries. Most of the statements you make or you read will be in the indicative mood. The highlighted verbs in the following sentences are all in the indicative mood:

Joe picks up the boxes. The german shepherd fetches the stick. Charles closes the window.

67. The Imperative Mood The imperative mood is also common and is used to give orders or to make requests. The imperative is identical in form to the second person indicative. The highlighted verbs in the following sentences are all in the imperative mood:

Pick up those boxes. Fetch. Close the window.

68. The Subjunctive Mood The subjunctive mood has almost disappeared from the language and is thus more difficult to use correctly than either the indicative mood or the imperative mood. The subjunctive mood rarely appears in everyday conversation or writing and is used in a set of specific circumstances. You form the present tense subjunctive by dropping the "s" from the end of the third person singular, except for the verb "be". paints

present subjunctive: "paint" walks

present subjunctive: "walk" thinks

present subjunctive: "think" is

present subjunctive: "be"

Except for the verb "be," the past tense subjunctive is indistinguishable in form from the past tense indicative. The past tense subjunctive of "be" is "were." painted

past subjunctive: "painted" walked

past subjunctive: "walked" thought

past subjunctive: "thought" was

past subjunctive: "were" The subjunctive is found in a handful of traditional circumstances. For example, in the sentence "God save the Queen," the verb "save" is in the subjunctive mood. Similarly, in the sentence "Heaven forbid," the verb forbid is in the subjunctive mood. The subjunctive is usually found in complex sentences. The subjunctive mood is used in dependent clauses to express unreal conditions and in dependent clauses following verbs of wishing or requesting. The subjunctive mood is used in a dependent clause attached to an independent clause that uses a verb such as "ask," "command," "demand," "insist," "order," "recommend," "require," "suggest," or "wish." The subjunctive mood is also used in a dependent clause attached to an independent clause that uses an adjective that expresses urgency (such as "crucial," "essential," "important," "imperative," "necessary," or "urgent"). Each of the highlighted verbs in the following sentences is in the subjunctive mood.

It is urgent that Harraway attend Monday's meeting. The Member of Parliament demanded that the Minister explain the effects of the bill on the environment. The sergeant ordered that Calvin scrub the walls of the mess hall. We suggest that Mr. Beatty move the car out of the no parking zone. The committee recommended that the bill be passed immediately. If Canada were a tropical country, we would be able to grow pineapples in our backyards. If he were more generous, he would not have chased the canvassers away from his door. I wish that this book were still in print. If the council members were interested in stopping street prostitution, they would urge the police to pursue customers more vigorously than they pursue the prostitutes.

69. Non-finite forms of the verb (verbals).

Gerunds A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun. The term verbal indicates that a gerund, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, since a gerund functions as a noun, it occupies some positions in a sentence that a noun ordinarily would, for example: subject, direct object, subject complement, and object of preposition. Gerund as subject:

 Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (Traveling is the gerund.)

 The study abroad program might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (The gerund has been removed.)

Gerund as direct object:

 They do not appreciate my singing. (The gerund is singing.)  They do not appreciate my assistance. (The gerund has been removed)

Gerund as subject complement:

 My cat's favorite activity is sleeping. (The gerund is sleeping.)  My cat's favorite food is salmon. (The gerund has been removed.)

Gerund as object of preposition:

 The police arrested him for speeding. (The gerund is speeding.)  The police arrested him for criminal activity. (The gerund has been removed.)

A Gerund Phrase is a group of words consisting of a gerund and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action or state expressed in the gerund, such as: The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the sentence.

Findinga needlein a haystack would be easier than what we're trying to do.

Finding (gerund) a needle (direct object of action expressed in gerund) in a haystack (prepositional phrase as adverb) The gerund phrase functions as the direct object of the verb appreciate.

I hope that you appreciate myofferingyouthis opportunity.

my (possessive pronoun adjective form, modifying the gerund) offering (gerund) you (indirect object of action expressed in gerund) this opportunity (direct object of action expressed in gerund) The gerund phrase functions as the subject complement.

Newt's favorite tactic has been lying tohis constituents.

lying to (gerund) his constituents (direct object of action expressed in gerund) The gerund phrase functions as the object of the preposition for.

You might get in trouble for fakingan illnessto avoid work.

faking (gerund) an illness (direct object of action expressed in gerund) to avoid work (infinitive phrase as adverb) The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the sentence.

Being the boss made Jeff feel uneasy.

Being (gerund) the boss (subject complement for Jeff, via state of being expressed in gerund)

Punctuation A gerund virtually never requires any punctuation with it.

Points to remember:

1. A gerund is a verbal ending in -ing that is used as a noun. 2. A gerund phrase consists of a gerund plus modifier(s), object(s), and/or complement(s). 3. Gerunds and gerund phrases virtually never require punctuation.

Participles A participle is a verbal that is used as an adjective and most often ends in -ing or -ed. The term verbal indicates that a participle, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, since they function as adjectives, participles modify nouns or pronouns. There are two types of participles: present participles and past participles. Present participles end in -ing. Past participles end in -ed, -en, -d, -t, or -n, as in the words asked, eaten, saved, dealt, and seen.

 The crying baby had a wet diaper.  Shaken, he walked away from the wrecked car.  The burning log fell off the fire.  Smiling, she hugged the panting dog.

A participial phrase is a group of words consisting of a participle and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action or state expressed in the participle, such as:

Removinghis coat, Jack rushed to the river.

The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying Jack.Removing (participle) his coat (direct object of action expressed in participle)

Delores noticed her cousin walkingalong the shoreline.

The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying cousin.walking (participle) along the shoreline (prepositional phrase as adverb)

Children introduced tomusicearly develop strong intellectual skills.

The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying children.introduced (to) (participle) music (direct object of action expressed in participle) early (adverb)

Having beena gymnast, Lynn knew the importance of exercise.

The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying Lynn.Having been (participle) a gymnast (subject complement for Lynn, via state of being expressed in participle) Placement: In order to prevent confusion, a participial phrase must be placed as close to the noun it modifies as possible, and the noun must be clearly stated.

Carrying a heavy pile of books, his foot caught on a step. *  Carrying a heavy pile of books, he caught his foot on a step.

In the first sentence there is no clear indication of who or what is performing the action expressed in the participle carrying. Certainly foot can't be logically understood to function in this way. This situation is an example of a dangling modifier error since the modifier (the participial phrase) is not modifying any specific noun in the sentence and is thus left "dangling." Since a person must be doing the carrying for the sentence to make sense, a noun or pronoun that refers to a person must be in the place immediately after the participial phrase, as in the second sentence. Punctuation: When a participial phrase begins a sentence, a comma should be placed after the phrase.

Arriving at the store, I found that it was closed.  Washing and polishing the car, Frank developed sore muscles.

If the participle or participial phrase comes in the middle of a sentence, it should be set off with commas only if the information is not essential to the meaning of the sentence.

 Sid, watching an old movie, drifted in and out of sleep.  The church, destroyed by a fire, was never rebuilt.

Note that if the participial phrase is essential to the meaning of the sentence, no commas should be used:

 The student earning the highest grade point average will receive a special award.  The guy wearing the chicken costume is my cousin.

If a participial phrase comes at the end of a sentence, a comma usually precedes the phrase if it modifies an earlier word in the sentence but not if the phrase directly follows the word it modifies.

 The local residents often saw Ken wandering through the streets. (The phrase modifies Ken, not residents.)

 Tom nervously watched the woman, alarmed by her silence. (The phrase modifies Tom, not woman.)

Points to remember

1. A participle is a verbal ending in -ing (present) or -ed, -en, -d, -t, or -n (past) that functions as an adjective, modifying a noun or pronoun.

2. A participial phrase consists of a participle plus modifier(s), object(s), and/or complement(s). 3. Participles and participial phrases must be placed as close to the nouns or pronouns they

modify as possible, and those nouns or pronouns must be clearly stated. 4. A participial phrase is set off with commas when it:

o a) comes at the beginning of a sentence o b) interrupts a sentence as a nonessential element o c) comes at the end of a sentence and is separated from the word it modifies.

Infinitives An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word to plus a verb (in its simplest "stem" form) and functioning as a noun, adjective, or adverb. The term verbal indicates that an infinitive, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, the infinitive may function as a subject, direct object, subject complement, adjective, or adverb in a sentence. Although an infinitive is easy to locate because of the to + verb form, deciding what function it has in a sentence can sometimes be confusing.

To wait seemed foolish when decisive action was required. (subject)  Everyone wanted to go. (direct object)  His ambition is to fly. (subject complement)  He lacked the strength to resist. (adjective)

 We must study to learn. (adverb) Be sure not to confuse an infinitive—a verbal consisting of to plus a verb—with a prepositional phrase beginning with to, which consists of to plus a noun or pronoun and any modifiers.

Infinitives: to fly, to draw, to become, to enter, to stand, to catch, to belong  Prepositional Phrases: to him, to the committee, to my house, to the mountains, to us, to this

address An Infinitive Phrase is a group of words consisting of an infinitive and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s) that function as the actor(s), direct object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action or state expressed in the infinitive, such as:

We intended to leaveearly.

The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb intended.to leave (infinitive) early (adverb)

I have a paper to writebefore class.

The infinitive phrase functions as an adjective modifying paper.to write (infinitive) before class (prepositional phrase as adverb)

Phil agreed to givemea ride.

The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb agreed.to give (infinitive) me (indirect object of action expressed in infinitive) a ride (direct object of action expressed in infinitive)

They asked meto bringsome food.

The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb asked.me (actor or "subject" of infinitive phrase) to bring (infinitive) some food (direct object of action expressed in infinitive)

Everyone wanted Carol to be the captain of the team.

The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb wanted.Carol (actor or "subject" of infinitive phrase) to be (infinitive) the captain (subject complement for Carol, via state of being expressed in infinitive) of the team (prepositional phrase as adjective) Actors: In these last two examples the actor of the infinitive phrase could be roughly characterized as the "subject" of the action or state expressed in the infinitive. It is somewhat misleading to use the word subject, however, since an infinitive phrase is not a full clause with a subject and a finite verb. Also notice that when it is a pronoun, the actor appears in the objective case (me, not I, in the fourth example). Certain verbs, when they take an infinitive direct object, require an actor for the infinitive phrase; others can't have an actor. Still other verbs can go either way, as the charts below illustrate.

Verbs that take infinitive objects without actors:

agree begin continue decide

fail hesitate hope intend

learn neglect offer plan

prefer pretend promise refuse

remember start try

Examples:

 Most students plan to study.  We began to learn.  In all of these examples no actor can come between the italicized main (finite) verb and the

infinitive direct-object phrase.

Verbs that take infinitive objects with actors: advise allow convince remind

encourage force hire teach

instruct invite permit tell

implore incite appoint order

Examples:

 He reminded me to buy milk.  Their fathers advise them to study.  She forced the defendant to admit the truth.  You've convinced the director of the program to change her position.  I invite you to consider the evidence.

In all of these examples an actor is required after the italicized main (finite) verb and before the infinitive direct-object phrase.

Verbs that use either pattern: ask expect (would) like want

Examples:

 I asked to see the records.  I asked him to show me the records.  Trent expected his group to win.  Trent expected to win.

In all of these examples the italicized main verb can take an infinitive object with or without an actor. Punctuation: If the infinitive is used as an adverb and is the beginning phrase in a sentence, it should be set off with a comma; otherwise, no punctuation is needed for an infinitive phrase.

To buy a basket of flowers, John had to spend his last dollar.  To improve your writing, you must consider your purpose and audience.

Points to remember

1. An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word to plus a verb; it may be used as a noun, adjective, or adverb.

2. An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive plus modifier(s), object(s), complement(s), and/or actor(s).

3. An infinitive phrase requires a comma only if it is used as an adverb at the beginning of a sentence.

70. Morphological categories of the infinitive The infinitive is a non-finite form of the verb which names a process in a most general way. Like other non-finites the infinitive has a double nature: it has verbal and non-verbal (i.e. nominal) features. The verbal features of the infinitive are of two kinds: morphological (the infinitive has the verb categories of voice, aspect and perfect) and syntactical. The category of perfect 1. The non-perfect infinitive indicates that the action expressed by the infinitive is simultaneous with the action of the finite verb; e.g. I’ve always heard him tell the tale. Combined with the present tense of such verbs as to want, to expect, to hope, to intend, etc. the non- perfect infinitive refers an action to the future; e.g. I want you to give me some information. When used with the modal verbs the non-perfect infinitive may also refer an action to the future;e.g. I must go and see him in a day or two. The meaning of the non-perfect infinitive may easily be modified by the context. Thus, it may denote an action preceding or following the action denoted by the finite verb. 2. The perfect infinitive indicates that the action expressed by the infinitive precedes the action of the finite verb; e.g. I am very glad to have seen you again. Combined with a modal verb the perfect infinitive indicates a) either that the action took place in the past, e.g. Why did she go away so early last night? – She may have been ill. b) or that the action is already accomplished at a given moment and is viewed upon from that moment; e.g. Let’s go, it must have stopped raining. After the modal verbs should, ought to, could, might, was to /were to the perfect infinitive indicates that an action planned or considered desirable was not carried out. e.g. You should have phoned me at once. After the past tense forms of the verbs expressing hope, expectation, intention the perfect infinitive indicates that the action was not carried out. e.g. I meant to have written to you. (but I didn’t) The category of aspect 1. The common aspect forms denote simultaneousness with the action of the finite verb. 2. The non-perfect continuous infinitive denotes an action in its progress at the time when the action expressed by the finite form of the verb takes place;e.g. She seemed to be listening. 3. The perfect continuous infinitive denotes an action which lasted a certain time before the action of the finite verb., e.g. We must have been walking for two hours, let’s have a rest. The two aspects differ in their frequency and functioning; the continuous aspect forms are very seldom used and cannot perform all the functions in which the common aspect forms are used. They can only function as: a) subject; e.g. To be staying with them was a real pleasure. b) object; e.g. I was glad to be walking. c) part of a compound verbal predicate; e.g. Now they must be getting back. The category of voice The infinitive of transitive verbs has the category of voice, active (to say, to have said) and passive (to be said, to have been said). There are no perfect continuous forms in the passive voice and non-perfect continuous forms (to be being taken) are exceptionally rare.

72. Gerund and the infinitive compared

Gerunds are nouns built from a verb with an '-ing' suffix. They can be used as the subject of a sentence, an object, or an object of preposition. They can also be used to complement a subject. Often, gerunds exist side-by-side with nouns that come from the same root but the gerund and the common noun have different shades of meaning. Examples: breath and breathing, knowledge and knowing.

Examples of gerunds as the subject of a sentence are:

Backpacking is a rewarding pastime.  Stretching can loosen up muscles.  No smoking. (I.e., no smoking is allowed / you may not smoke here.)

As an object:

 We all love to go bowling on the weekend.  He loves eating chips.

An object of preposition:

 They complained of hearing strange sounds from the next cabin.  They sang about being eaten by bears to allay their fears.

And as a complement to a subject:

 One of the most dangerous things to do on the lake is ice-skating.

Infinitive is the base form of the verb. The infinitive form of a verb is the form which follows "to".

For example:  (to) go, (to) be,(to) ask, (to) fight, (to) understand, (to) walk .

Infinitives may occur with or without the infinitive marker "to". Infinitives without "to" are known as "bare infinitives".

For example:  Help me open the door.

OTHER FORMS The infinitive can have the following forms:

1. The perfect infinitive to have + past participle For example: to have broken, to have seen, to have saved. This form is most commonly found in Type 3 conditional sentences, using the conditional perfect. For example:  If I had known you were coming I would have baked a cake.  Someone must have broken the window and climbed in.  I would like to have seen the Taj Mahal when I was in India.  He pretended to have seen the film.  If I'd seen the ball I would have caught it.

2. The continuous infinitive

to be + present participle

For example: to be swimming, to be joking, to be waiting Examples:  I'd really like to be swimming in a nice cool pool right now.  You must be joking!  I happened to be waiting for the bus when the accident happened.

3. The perfect continuous infinitive

to have been + present participle Examples: to have been crying, to have been waiting, to have been painting Examples:  The woman seemed to have been crying.  You must have been waiting for hours!  He pretended to have been painting all day.

4. The passive infinitive

to be + past participle For example: to be given, to be shut, to be opened Examples:  I am expecting to be given a pay-rise next month.  These doors should be shut.  This window ought to be opened.

NOTE: As with the present infinitive, there are situations where the "to" is omitted.

75. Structural classification of sentences.

A simple sentence has only one subject and one predicate-verb, but it may contain more than one object, attribute or adverbial. A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses (or simple sentences) related to each other in meaning, and linked by a coordinating conjunction, such as and, but, or, or by a (;) without a conjunction. A complex sentence contains one main/principal clause and one or more dependent/subordinate clauses, with a connective word denoting the relation between the two parts. A compound-complex sentence contains at least two main clauses and at least one dependent clause—a combination of a compound and a complex sentence.

76. One-member sentences

Sentence Fragments are also called one-member sentences, which contain only the few words that express the main idea.

78. Elliptical (incomplete) sentences. In the grammar of a sentence, an elliptical construction is a construction that lacks an element that is, nevertheless, recoverable or inferable from the context. The elliptical construction is a

sequence of words in which some words have been omitted. Because of the logic or pattern of the entire sentence, it is easy to infer what the missing words are. Example: Fire when ready. (In the sentence, "you are" is understood, as in "Fire when you are ready."). Elliptical constructions can often be used in dialog to shorten what is being said.

79. Communicative types of sentences.

Exclamatory An exclamatory sentence is released because of, and expresses strong emotion. Exclamations are comparable to interjections. In punctuation, an exclamatory is ended with an exclamation mark. For instance:

I'll never finish this paper in time!

Imperative An imperative sentence gives an order or directions or instructions. Imperative sentences are a little more intentional than exclamatory sentences, and their aim is to get the person(s) being spoken to to either do or not do something (usually in direct relation to the speaker). An imperative can end in either a period or an exclamation point.

After separating them from the yolks, beat the whites until they are light and fluffy.Help me!

The vocative case of nouns can be said to be in the imperative as well since it does not seek information, but rather a reaction from the person (or animal) being addressed.

80. Types of interrogative sentences. There are four types of interrogative sentences.

Yes/No Interrogatives Yes/No questions usually will be answered by yes or no.

For example:

 Will you bring your book? * => Answer: Yes or No)

 Did she pass the test? * => Answer: Yes or No)

Alternative Interrogatives Alternative interrogativse offer two or more alternative responses:

For example:

 Should I telephone you or send an email?  Do you want bear, wine, or wisky?

Yes/no interrogatives and alternative interrogatives are introduced by an auxiliary verb.

Wh- Interrogatives Wh- Interrogatives are introduced by a wh- word, and they elicit an open-ended response:

For example:

 What happened?  Where do you work?  Who won the Cup Final in 1997?

Tag Questions They are sometimes tagged onto the end of a declarative sentence.

For example:

 David plays the piano, doesn't he?  We've forgotten the milk, haven't we?  There's a big match tonight, isn't there?

82). Major sentence elements. Sentence elements are the groups of words that combine together to comprise the ‘building units’ of a well-formed sentence. A sentence element approach to grammar assumes a top-down methodology. In other words, it starts with the sentence as a whole and then divides it into its functional components.

There are five types of sentence element:

1. subject 2. predicate 3. object 4. predicative (aka complement) 5. adverbial

83). Types of subject:

a). Nouns b). Pronouns - Personal Pronouns; Interrogative Pronouns; Demonstrative pronouns; Indefinite pronouns c). Gerund or Gerund Phrase d). Infinitive or infinitive phrase e). Indefinite or Dummy subject f). Clauses

85). Difference between objects and complements An object in grammar is a sentence element and part of the sentence predicate. It denotes somebody or something involved in the subject's "performance" of the verb. As an example, the following sentence is given:

In the sentence "Bobby kicked the ball", "ball" is the object.

"Bobby" is the subject, the doer or performer, while "kick" is the action, and "ball" is the object involved in the action.

Objects fall into three classes: direct objects, prepositional objects, and non-prepositional indirect objects. An object may take any of a number of forms, all of them nominal in some sense. Common forms include:

 A noun or noun phrase, as in "I remembered her advice."  An infinitive or infinitival clause, as in "I remembered to eat."  A gerund or gerund phrase, as in "I remembered being there."  A declarative content clause, as in "I remembered that he was blond."  An interrogative content clause, as in "I remembered why she had left."  A fused relative clause, as in "I remembered what she wanted me to do."

A complement is used with verbs like be, seem, look etc. Complements give more information about the subject or, in some structures, about the object.

There are various definitions of 'complement', which range from the very general (anything in the predicate except the verb, including the direct object and adverbs) to the much more restrictive one used here.

A complement is the part of the sentence that gives you more information about the subject (a subject complement) or the object (an object complement) of the sentence.

The complement to be used, if any, is dependent on the verb used in the sentence. Subject complements normally follow certain verbs. e.g.

He is Spanish.

She became an engineer.

That man looks like John.

Object complements follow the direct object of the verb. E.g.

They painted the house red.

She called him an idiot!

I saw her standing there

 

86). Compound sentences and types of coordination. In the English language, a compound sentence  is composed of at least two independent clauses. It does not require a dependent clause. The clauses  are joined by a coordinating conjunction (with or without a comma), a correlative conjunction (with  or without a comma), or a semicolon that functions as a conjunction. A conjunction can be used to  make a compound sentence. The use of a comma to separate two independent clauses in a sentence  is accepted as part of the English language. 

Example: My friend invited me to a tea party, but my parents didn't let me go.

87). Complex sentences.A complex sentence has a base of a complete sentence with a subject, verb, and words to complete the thought (the complete "couple" or "parents"). A complex sentence also adds additional information in separate phrases (the "children"). The information in the phrases depends upon the information in the complete sentence base; it cannot stand alone. The [bracketed] phrases in the following sentences add information to the base sentence but cannot stand alone:  

[If the temperature stays at about freezing], then we can join the polar bear club for a dip in the lake. I told him that his new print on the wall looked like an interesting prehistoric drawing of a fish, [although I really just wanted to laugh]. The kids need to go to bed, [whether or not they want to], no later than 8:00 p.m. Certain words traditionally start off the subordinate, or dependent, parts of the complex sentence: before.....while.....if.....where after.....because.....whether.....whereas though.....since.....unless.....as although.....when.....because.....as if

88). Types of attributive/relative clauses. Types of relative clause 

There are two types of relative clause: defining and non-defining. You use a defining (or restrictive) relative clause to ‘identify’ or ‘restrict the reference of’ a noun. You do not separate it from the rest of the sentence by commas (in text) or pauses (in speech).

 The student who achieves the highest GPA score in this department will be awarded a prize of $20,000.

 Computer games that involve fighting and shooting apparently have a negative effect on young people.

You use a non-defining (or non-restrictive) relative clause to supply additional information about the noun, whose identity or reference is already established. You can also use it to comment on the whole situation described in a main clause.

 Albert Einstein, who put forward the theory of relativity, is considered by many as the most intelligent person in human history.

 The ELC, which provides language support to PolyU students, is located in the AG wing.

You should not use the relative pronoun that in non-defining relative clauses

89). Types of adverbial clauses. 

An adverbial clause is a clause that functions as an adverb. In other words, it contains subject (explicit  or implied) and predicate, and it modifies a verb. Types of adverbial clauses:  

kind of clause usual conjunction function example

time clauses when, before, after, since, while, as, until

These clauses are used to say when something happens by referring to a period of time or to another event.

Her father died when she was young.

conditional clauses if, unless

These clauses are used to talk about a possible situation and its consequences.

If they lose weight during an illness, they soon regain it afterwards.

purpose clauses

in order to, so that, in order that

These clauses are used to indicate the purpose of an action.

They had to take some of his land so that they could extend the churchyard.

reason clauses because, since, as, given These clauses are used to indicate the reason for something.

I couldn't feel anger against him because I liked him too much.

result clauses so that These clauses are used to indicate the result of something.

My suitcase had become so damaged on the journey home that the lid would not stay closed.

concessive clauses

although, though, while

These clauses are used to make two statements, one of which contrasts with the other or makes it seem surprising.

I used to read a lot although I don't get much time for books now

place clauses where, wherever These clauses are used to talk about the location or position of something.

He said he was happy where he was.

clauses of manner as, like, the way

These clauses are used to talk about someone's behaviour or the way something is done.

I was never allowed to do things the way I wanted to do them.

clauses of exclamations

what a(an), how, such, so

Exclamations are used to express anger, fear, shock, surprise etc. They always take an exclamation mark (!).

What horrible news! How fast she types! You lucky man!

 

 

Adjective- In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun, giving more information about the noun or pronoun's definition. According to their way of nomination ,adjectives fall into two groups : - qualitative - relative Compound adjectives consist of at least two steams : a) consisting of a noun and adjective (color-blind, grows-green) b) adjective + an adjective ( deaf-mute) c) adverb + a participle ( well known, newly-repaired) d) noun/pronoun + a verbal( all-seeking, heart-breaking) e) adjective/adverb + a noun +the suffix –ed ( blue –eyed, long-legged) Adverb- An adverb is a part of speech. It is any word that modifies any other part of language: verbs, adjectives (including numbers), clauses, sentences and other adverbs, except for nouns; modifiers of nouns are primarily determiners and adjectives. Kinds of Adverbs Adverbs of Manner She moved slowly and spoke quietly. Adverbs of Place She has lived on the island all her life. She still lives there now. Adverbs of Frequency She takes the boat to the mainland every day. She often goes by herself. Adverbs of Time She tries to get back before dark. It's starting to get dark now. She finished her tea first. She left early. Adverbs of Purpose She drives her boat slowly to avoid hitting the rocks. She shops in several stores to get the best buys. Adverbial modifier- is the secondary part of the sentence which modifies another part of the sentence expressed by a verb, or an adjective, or an adverb denoting the time, place, manner, degree, quantity. May refer to: - the predicate- verb or to a verbal phrase - the whole of the sentence - adjectives - adverbs

Antecedent- Antecedent takes the place of a noun..... In grammar, an antecedent is generally the noun or noun phrase to which an anaphor refers in a coreference. However, an antecedent can also be a clause, especially when the anaphor is a demonstrative Bare infinitive- In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. In the usual (traditional) description of English, the infinitive of a verb is its basic form with or without the particle to: therefore, do and to do, be and to be, and so on are infinitives. As with many linguistic concepts, there is not a single definition of infinitive that applies to all languages; however, in languages that have infinitives, they generally have most of the following properties: -In most of their uses, infinitives are non-finite verbs. -They function as other lexical categories — usually nouns — within the clauses that contain them, for example by serving as the subject of another verb. -They do not represent any of the verb's arguments (as employer and employee do). -They are not inflected to agree with any subject, and their subject, if they have one, is not case-marked as such. -They cannot serve as the only verb of a declarative sentence. -They are the verb's lemma, citation form, and/or name; that is, they are regarded as its basic uninflected form, and/or they are used in giving its definition or conjugation. -They do not have tense, aspect, moods, and/or voice, or they are limited in the range of tenses, aspects, moods, and/or voices that they can use. (In languages where infinitives do not have moods at all, they are usually treated as being their own non-finite mood.) -They are used with auxiliary verbs. . Case- In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun indicates its grammatical function in a greater phrase or clause; such as the role of subject, of direct object, or of possessor. Case is the grammatical function of a noun or pronoun. There are only three cases in modern English, they are subjective (he), objective (him) and possessive (his). They may seem more familiar in their old English form - nominative, accusative and genitive. There is no dative case in modern English. Yippee!

Collective nouns- Collective nouns are nouns that refer to things or people as a unit. Examples: family, police, class, team, crew etc. Collective nouns can be used in both the singular form and the plural form. Rules for Using Collective Nouns: - Singular Collective Noun (Singular collective nouns refer to one unit of people or things, Singular

collective nouns are used like singular nouns.) - Plural Collective Nouns (Plural collective nouns refer to two or more units of people or things, Plural

collective nouns are used like plural nouns )

Common noun – a noun that may be preceded by an article or other limiting modifier and that denotes any or all of a class of entities and not an individual. Common nouns can be subcategorized as count nouns and mass nouns. A common noun begins with a lowercase letter unless it is at the beginning of a sentence. Contrast with proper noun. Examples of sentences with common nouns:  The black dog is in my yard.  His anger knows no limits.

complement – is any word or phrase that completes the sense of a subject or an object.  object complement is a complement that is used to predicate a description of the direct object.

Examples: We elected him chairman.  subject complement is a complement that is used to predicate a description of the subject of a

clause. Subject complements have two subgroups: predicate adjectives and predicate nouns. Examples:

I am not yet experienced. I am a teacher.

Complement is obligatory, as contrasted with adjuncts, which are optional. conjunction – is a word that links words, phrases, or clauses. There are three types of conjunctions:  coordinatingconjunctions: may join single words, or they may join groups of words, but they

must always join similar elements: e.g. subject+subject, verb phrase+verb phrase, sentence+sentence. (e.g. for, and, because, but, or, yet, so, nor)

correlativeconjunctions: also connect sentence elements of the same kind: however, unlike coordinating conjunctions, correlative conjunctions are always used in pairs.

(e.g. either. . .or; both. . . and; neither. . . nor; not only. . . but also)  subordinatingconjunctions: the largest class of conjunctions, connect subordinate clauses to

a main clause. (e.g. as, although, before, even if, since, that, unless, when)  conjunctive adverbs: join independent clauses together (e.g. also, indeed, next, thus)

copular verb – in other words linking verb; links a subject to a complement. Linking verbs must be followed by a complement in order to make the sentence complete. The complement can be a subject complement or an adverbial, and occurs in two sentence types which are of the Subject-Verb- Complement (SVC) and Subject-Verb-Adverbial (SVA) pattern.These are two groups of linking verbs:  resulting linking verbs: become, get, grow, fall, prove, run, turn  current linking verbs: appear, be, feel, lie, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste

degree of comparison – the degree of comparison of an adjective or adverb describes the relational value of one thing with something in another clause of a sentence. An adjective may  simply describe a quality (the positive), e.g.This house is big. compare the quality with that of another of its kind (comparative degree), e.g. This house is

bigger than that one.  compare the quality with many or all others (superlative degree), e.g. This is the biggest house

in this street. deictic word (deixis) – word or phrase that can only be understood from the context of the text or utterance. E.g. Tom’s interview was about to start and he was feeling nervous about it. Here, from the context, we know that he refers to Tom and it refers to the interview.

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