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1. PARTS OF SPEECH Traditional grammar classifies words based on eight parts of speech: the verb, the noun, the pronoun, the adjective, the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction, and the interjection.
Each part of speech explains not what the word is, but how the word is used. In fact, the same word can be a noun in one sentence and a verb or adjective in the next.
1. The verb is perhaps the most important part of the sentence. A verb or compound verb asserts something about the subject of the sentence and express actions, events, or states of being. The verb or compound verb is the critical element of the predicate of a sentence.
2. A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. Some grammar books divide nouns into 2 groups - proper nouns and common nouns. Proper nouns are nouns which begin with a capital letter because it is the name of a specific or particular person place or thing. , Susan, Maple Street, Burger King.. Most nouns are common nouns and do not begin with a capital letter.
Many nouns have a special plural form if there is more than one. For example, we say one book but two books. Plurals are usually formed by adding an -s (books) or -es (boxes) but some plurals are formed in different ways (child - children, person - people, mouse - mice, sheep - sheep).
A noun can function in a sentence as a subject, a direct object, an indirect object, a subject complement, an object complement, an appositive, an adjective or an adverb.
3. A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. You use pronouns like "he," "which," "none," and "you" to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive.
Grammarians classify pronouns into several types, including the personal pronoun, the demonstrative pronoun, the interrogative pronoun, the indefinite pronoun, the relative pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, and the intensive pronoun.
4. An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies. An adjective can be modified by an adverb, or by a phrase or clause functioning as an
5. An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a clause. An adverb indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as "how," "when," "where," "how much".
While some adverbs can be identified by their characteristic "ly" suffix, most of them must be identified by untangling the grammatical relationships within the sentence or clause as a whole. Unlike an adjective, an adverb can be found in various places within the sentence.
6. A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition.
A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples:1
The book is on the table.
The book is beneath the table.
In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun "book" in space or in time.
7. A conjunction is a word that connects other words or groups of words. In the sentence Bob and Dan are friends the conjunction and connects two nouns and in the Coordinating conjunctions are conjunctions which connect two equal parts of a sentence. The most common ones are and, or, but, and so . Subordinating conjunctions connect two parts of a sentence that are not equal:after ; before; unless; although; if ; until ; as ;since ; because etc.Correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that work together both . . .and; either . . . or ; neither . . . nor; not only . . . but also
8. An interjection is a word added to a sentence to convey emotion. It is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence.
You usually follow an interjection with an exclamation mark. Interjections are uncommon in formal academic prose, except in direct quotations.
2. NOTIONAL PARTS OF SPEECH / 3. FUNCTIONAL PARTS OF SPEECH
We distinguish between notional and structural parts of speech. The notional parts of speech perform certain functions in the sentence: those of subject, predicate, attribute, object, or adverbial modifier. The notional parts of speech are: noun, adjective, pronoun, numeral, verb, adverb, words of the category of state, modal words, interjection. The structural parts of speech either express relations between words or sentences or emphasize the meaning of words or sentences. They do not perform any independent function in the sentence. Here belong: preposition, conjunction, particle, article.
7. CASE OF ENGLISH NOUN Nouns and pronouns in English are said to display case according to their function in the sentence. They can be subjective or nominative (which means they act as the subject of independent or dependent clauses), possessive (which means they show possession of something else), or objective (which means they function as the recipient of action or are the object of a preposition).
Except for the possessive forms (usually formed by the addition of an apostrophe and the letter s), nouns do not change form in English. (This is one of the few ways in which English is easier than other languages.) Pronouns, however, do change form when they change case;
these changes are most clearly illustrated among the personal pronouns. The chart below illustrates the different forms among the cases.
8.TYPES OF GENITIVE CASE
singular noun + 's my father's house
plural noun + ' my parents' house
irregular plural + 's the children's room
We sometimes just add an apostrophe (') to a singular noun ending in -s, especially older and foregin names.
But 's is more common
Dickens's novels Mr Levis's dog
We can add 's or ' to a whole phrase
the man next door's wife
Paul and Mary's dog
Possessive 's and other determiners
A noun cannot normally have an article or other determiner with it as well as a possessive word. Definite articles are usually dropped when possessives are used.
The car that is John's = John's car (NOT the John's car)
But a possessive word can of course have its own article.
The car that is the boss's = the boss's car
Compound nouns beginning withpossessive words (classifying genitive)are treated differently. Articles belonging to the possessive word are dropped.
He works as a Queen's Messenger. (Not ..a the Q M)
When we want to use a noun with a/an or this/that as well a possessive, we usually use the 'of mine' construction
She is a cousin of John's. (not ...a John'a cousin)
I saw that stupid boyfriend of Angie's. (not ...that Angie's stupid boyfriend)
Possessive without a noun
We can use a possessive without a following noun, if the meaning is clear:
Whose is that? -Peter's.
We often talk about people's houses, shops, firms and churches in this way.The apostrophe is often dropped in the names of shops and firms.
We had a nice time at John and Susan's last night.
I bought it at Smiths.
She got married at St. Joseph's.
In modern English expressions like: the doctor, the dentist, the hairdresser, the butcher are often used without 's
Alice is at the hairdresser('s).
9. ARTICLE AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS
The articles a/an and the belong to a group of words called detrminers. Articles normally come at the beginning of noun phrases, before adjectives.
A/an is called the indefinite article. The is called the definite article. Some/any is often used as the plural form of a/an. And if we have no article, this has a different meaning from all the others. So there are really 4 artisles.
Articles are used to show whether we are reffering to things that are known both to the speaker and to the listener (definite), or that are not known to them both (indefinite)
I've been to the doctor. (you know which doctor)
A doctor must like people. (any doctor at all)
Articles can also show whether we are talking about things in general or particular things.
There are some children in the garden. (some particular children)
Children usually start walking at around one year. (children in general)
Plural nouns cannot be used with a/an because a/an has a similar meaning to 'one', and uncauntable nouns are not generally used with a/an, though there are some exeptions.
10. USE OF ARTICLES WITH COUNTABLE CONCRETE NOUNS
Articles are used in different way with countable and uncountable nouns. Countable nouns are the names of separate objects, people, ideas etc. which we can count:
a cat three cats
a plan two plans
A singular countable noun normally has an article or other dererminer with it. We can say a cat, the cat, every cat, this cat, but not just cat.
In some common fixed expressions to do with place, time and movement, normally countable nouns are treated as uncountables, without articles:
by day at night
by car/bus/plane/train/tube on foot etc.
With place nouns, similar expressions can have different meanings:
Who smokes in class? (=...in the classroom)
Who smokes in the class? (=Who is a smoker...?)
Many normally uncauntable nouns can be treated as countable to express the meaning 'a type of'' or 'a portion of':
Have you got a shampoo for dry hair?
Three coffees, please.
11.Main functions of the indefinite article: * An indefinite article (English a, an) is used before singular nouns that refer to any member of a group. A cat is A mammal. * an indefinite article is used when we talk about stg. and when we explain what it is Susan is AN actress. This is A mango. * an indefinite article is used when we talk about stg. first time (next time we should use the definite article THE) I'm looking for A job. THE job must be well paid.
12. Use of articles with abstract nouns. Articles with abstract nouns are not used. 13. Use of articles with non-countable concrete nouns (names of material) We can't use of indefinite articles with non-countable nouns. 14.Articles with names of seasons and parts of the day. * Usually articles are not used with parts of the day and names of seasons, but often the definite article is used (THE) : THE Summer, THE afternoon. 15. Articles with names of meal. When we talk about concrete dishes articles are not used. 16.Articles with names of parts of the body. With parts of the body are used indefinite articles. A neck, AN ear 18. Use of the definite article before proper names. * Definite article is used in titles: Henry VIII( Henry THE Eight) *Before the surnames which have the plural form: THE Clintons * Before the names of seas, oceans, rivers etc. THE Baltic, THE Alps, THE Sahara *Before the names of countries which have a plural form or have word "republic", "union", "kingdom" in their names THE Netherlands, THE United Kingdom, THE Republic of Ireland * before the names os cinemas, hotels, restaurants, etc. THE Hilton, THE British Museum, THE Beatles 19.Use of the indefinite articles before proper names. *The indefinite article (A/AN) is used when we talk about unknown person or unidentified person. There's A Mr.Brown on the phone! Look! A girl is waving to us. 20.Adjective and its semantic characteristic. - denote properties and states, esp. size, shape, colour, age, evaluation etc. - the properties denoted by them are often scalar, gradable - primarily carry the inflectional category of grade -the adjective class contains numerous pairs of gradable opposites/anonyms, eg: good-bad
22) Morphological characteristics of adjectives. We usually cannot tel whether word is an adjective by looking at it in isolation becouse the form of a word does not necessarily indicate the syntactic function. Some syffixes are found only with adjectives. However many adjectives have no indentyfying form. Four features are commonly considered to be characteristic of adjectives
They can freely occur in atributive/predicative function, they can be premodified by the intensifier VERY, they can take comperative or superlative form.
Morphologically, the -ly ending indicating "manner" occurs for the most part after adjectives: large-largely, beautiful-beautifully, quick-quickly, eager-eagerly, useful-usefully. (There are a few nouns which can occur before -ly, for example, friend(friendly), bubble (bubbly), love (lovely), but
most of the pre- -l y words are adjectives.) The -ly ending itself usually marks an adverb: with a few exceptions like friendly, bubbly, lively, lovely, and deadly-adjectives all-a word ending with -ly is an adverb, but the part before it is an adjective.
Another morphological characteristic of many adjectives is that they can occur before the comparative and superlative suffixes -er and -est, or after more and most (which can be considered allomorphs of -er and -est): larger, largest; more beautiful, most beautiful. However, adverbs can also occur with more and most, for example, more slowly, so this property cannot be taken as definitional. Moreover, there are numerous adjectives which cannot occur with comparative and superlative suffixes: former, fake, financial, economic, and so on. (Expressions like *Mr. Brown is a moreformer senator than Mr. Green are impossible, although Mr. Brown is a former senator is fine.)
Syntactically (meaning "with respect to sentence structure," or, more generally, "having to do with sequences of words"), many adjectives can occur both between articles and nouns-the large car, a strange forest (attributive position)-and at the end of a sentence after a form of be-The car was large, the forest is strange (predicate position). These slots (individually or in conjunction) are not definitional for adjectives, because some of the same adjectives which do not permit comparison (see above) also do not occur predicatively (*This senator is former is bad) and because there are a few adjectives which only occur predicatively, never attributively (e.g., asleep: The boy isasleep works, but *the asleep boy doesn't). But both are useful indications that the word in question is likely to be an adjective, and privilege of occurrence in both positions is even stronger evidence that the word is an adjective. The slot Article Noun is not hospitable to verbs, adverbs, and minor classes*the reads boy, *a quickly horse, *the oftable, *an it chair-but, besides adjectives, it can accept nouns: the stone wall, a coffeebean, the truck tire. It is sometimes said about these constructions that the modifying nouns are "used as adjectives." Indeed they are, if that means "used to modify nouns." However, they are unlike typical adjectives in three ways: i. They don't occur before -er or -est ( *This tire is trucker than that one), or after more or most (*This wall is more stone than that one; *That wall is the most stone of all), ii. Many do not occur in the "predicate" position (*This tire is truck), although some do (This wall is stone), iii. They never occur before -ly (*The countrv wall stood there stonely).
Moreover, the modifying nouns are nouns by our previous definition, in that they can (although not in the contexts exemplified in this paragraph) take possessives and plurals, and occur after articles. Additionally, paraphrases exist, even for the contexts exemplified previously, which strongly suggest that the words in question are nouns: the wall made of stone, a bean of coffee, a tire for a truck. In these paraphrases, the words occur after prepositions, a spot hospitable only to nouns or noun phrases (in which nouns are the head words).
Let's define adjectives with a combination of positive and negative attributes: for our purposes, an adjective will be any word which has at least one of ie following positive attributes:
i. it can occur between Article and Noun ii. it can occur in the slot (Art) N is____
and in addition has both of the following negative attributes:
i. it cannot occur with a plural ii. cannot occur with a possessive
23) Syntactic functions of adjectives
Attributive and predicative
The adjective function as the head of an adjective phrase with or without modification. For the sake of simplicity, we refer to the functions of the ‘adjective’ when strictly speaking we should refer to the functions of ‘adjective phrase’. For the same reason we generally exemplify the functions of the adjective phrase with the adjective alone.
In general ,adjectives that are restricted to attributive position, or that occur predominantly in attributive position, do not characterize the referent of the noun directly.
Restrictive Adjectives restrict the reference of the noun exclusively, particulary or chiefly
Adjectives are attributive when the premodify the head of the noun phrase.
Adjectives are predicative when they function as subject complement or object complement.
Adjectives can sometimes be postpositive they can immediately follow the noun or pronoun they modify.
Adjectives with complementation normally cannot have attributive position but require postposition.
Adjectives can function as head noun phrases which can be subject of the sentence, complement, object, and propositional complement .
Adjectives as noun-phrase heads do not inflect for number or for the genitive case and they usually require a definite determiner.
Adjectives can function as the sole realization of a verbless clause or as the head of an adjective phrase .
Adjectives (especially those that can be complement when the subject is eventive eg. That’s excellent) can be exclamations
Some adjectives are derived from nouns by means of suffixes. Adjectives that are rescricted to predicative position are most like verbs and adverbs
25)Morphological composition of adverbs. Some adverbs are formed from an adjective +ly. When an adjective already ends in –ly we do not add –ly to it to make an adverb. Instead we use prepositiona phrase with fashion manner and way. Most participle adjectives ending in –ed do not have an adverb form and we can use a similar preposition phrase. However some do have an adverb form with –ly .
Some adverbs have two forms, one ending –ly and the other not. We can sometimes use either of the two forms of the adverb without changing the meaning, although the form ending in –ly is more usual in formal style.
In other cases there is a difference in the meaning of the adverb with and without –ly.
26) Morphological characteristics of adverbs Morphologicaly we can distinguish three types of adverb of which two are closed classes (simple and compound), and one is an open class(derivational)
A) simple adverbs (just, only, well) many simple adverbs denote position and direction
B) compound adverbs (somehow, somewhere)
c) derivational adverbs the majority of derivational adverbs have the suffix –ly by means of which new adverbs are created from adjectives.
Other less common, derivational suffixes are: e.g. wise –clokwise, wise- sideways
27) Syntactic characteristics of adverb
The adverb functions as the head of an adverb phrase, with or without modification. For the sake of simplicity, we refer to the functions of the adverb when strictly speaking we should refer to the function of the adverb phrase. Becouse of its great heterogeneity, the adverb class is the most nebulous and puzzling of the traditionall word classess.
B.FUNCTIONS OF ADVERB PHRASES
The most usual syntactic functions of adverb phrases are the following:
(1) On a sentence or clause level adverb phrases can have the following syntactic function:
Adverbial: They did it systematically.
(2) You can also find adverbs or adverb phrases within other phrases, most often modifying an adjective or an adverb:
Premodifier of an adjective: We’re [very good]. Premodifier of an adverb: We did it [very well]. Premodifier of a preposition: They were standing [(right by) the door]. Premodifier of a pronoun: [(Virtually all) of my friends] were there. Premodifier of a determiner: The results have [(virtually no) meaning]. Premodifier of a numeral: [The chaps around forty to forty-five] are all… Premodifier of a noun: [The then managing editor]… Postmodifier of a noun: So you arrived [the day before]. Postmodifier of an adjective: That’s [fair enough] then. Postmodifier of an adverb: [Oddly enough], it’s not raining. Complement of a preposition: You should’ve completed that [by now].
28Morphological composition and categorical characteristics of pronoun Syntactically, most pronouns function like like noun p. Rather than nouns. They combine in only a limited way with determiners and modifier. We can say, indees, that most pronouns, being intrinsically either definite or indefinite, incorporate their own determiner. In addition, some pronouns have morphological characteristics that nouns do not have: a)CASE: there is contrast between subjective and objective cases: I/me) PERSON: there is contrast between 1st 2nd and 3rd persons c) GENDER: there are overt grammatical contrast between personal and non personal gender and between musculine and feminine gender D) Number there morphologically unrelated number forms, as in I/we.. as opossed to the typical regular formation of noun prulars.
Case forms: Most pronouns in english have only two case form (common case and genitive case). However the five personal pronouns: I, we, he , she, they and the wh-pronoun who have a distinction between subjective and objective cases.
Personal, possesive and reflexive pronouns have (unlike nonus) distinctions of person. The three person may be defined as foolows:
1st person pronouns:I, me my mine, myself, we, us our, ours, ouerselves. The reference of these prononus includes the speaker(s)/ writer(s) of the messaage
2nd perrson pronouns: you, your, yours, yourself, yourselves
the reference of these prononus includes the addressee(s), but excludes the speaker(s)/ writer(s).
3rd person prononuss: he, him, his, himself.she, her.hers, herself, it, its , itself, they, them, their.theirs themselves. The reference of these pronouns excludes both speakre(s)/ writer(s) and addreesse(s)
Musculine and feminine gender:
The choice between musc. and femin. pronouns is primarily based on the sex of the person or animal reffered to.
The personal, reflexive and possesive pronouns have singular and plural forms which are morphologically unrelated.
The personal pronouns usually have definite meaning, and resemble the noun phrases introduced by the definite article in that they may have situational, anaphoric or cataphoric reference.
The reflexive pronouns and with –self (singular) and –selves (plural). The reflexive has two distinc uses: basic and emphatic. Basic: the reflexive pronaun function as object or complement and has the subject of its clause as its antecendent. Emphatic:the pronoun is in an appositional relation to its antecedent.Reflexive prononus in general show number contrast in the manner of nonus.
Possesive pronouns: consist traditinally of two series the first ‘weak’ set of possesive pronouns has a determinative function while the second ‘stron’ set has an independent function as a noun phrase. As the genetive forms of personal pronouns behave very much like the corresponding genitive noun construction
Relative pronouns introduce relative clause.
Interrogative pronouns: they correspond closely to interrogative determiners
Demonstrative pronouns: they have definite meaning and therefore their reference depends on the context shared by speaker/writer and hearer/reader.
29. Personal pronouns and their characteristics
English in common use today has seven personal pronouns:
first-person singular (I) first-person plural (we) second-person singular and plural (you) third-person singular human or animate male (he) third-person singular human or animate female (she) third-person singular non-human or inanimate, or impersonal (it) third-person plural (they)
In English, it is standard to use personal pronouns explicitly (wyraźnie, jasno) even when the context already understood, or could easily be understood by reading the sentences that follow. For example, one does not normally use the word "he" to refer to somebody if the person reading or hearing the sentence does not know to whom one is referring.
In addition, personal pronouns must correspond to the correct gender, and number of people or objects being described. Using the word "it" in English to refer to a person, for example, is usually considered extremely derogatory. It is generally not accepted to use a singular version of a pronoun for a plural noun, and vice versa. An exception is the informal use of they to refer to one person when sex is unknown: "If somebody took my book, they'd better give it back"
Pronouns usually show the basic distinctions of person (typically a three-way distinction between first, second, and third persons) and number (typically singular vs. plural), but they may also feature other categories such as case (nominative we vs. objective us), gender (masculine he vs. feminine she ), and animacy or humanness (human who vs. nonhuman what) . These can of course vary greatly 30 Possessive pronouns and their characteristics.
possessive forms (my/your/her/his/their/our/etc. and mine/yours/hers/his/ours/theirs etc.) A possessive pronoun is a part of speech that attributes ownership to someone or something. Like all other pronouns, it substitutes a noun phrase and can prevent its repetition. For example, in the phrase, "These glasses are mine, not yours", the words "mine" and "yours" are possessive pronouns and stand for "my glasses" and "your glasses," respectively. None of the possessive pronouns are spelled with an apostrophe.
31Reflexive pronouns and their characteristics. A reflexive pronoun is a pronoun that is preceded by the noun or pronoun to which it refers (its antecedent) within the same clause. In generative grammar, a reflexive pronoun is an anaphor that must be bound by its antecedent. The reflexive pronouns are myself, yourself, thyself, himself (in some dialects, "hisself"), herself, itself, oneself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves (in some dialects, "theirselves").
EG. He shot himself.
The reflexive pronoun can also be used to give more emphasis to the subject or object.
EG. I did it myself. (I want to emphasise the fact that I did it.) 32Demonstrative pronouns and their characteristics.
This; that; these; those; noneandneitherareDemonstrative Pronouns that substitute nouns when the nouns they replace can be understood from the context. They also indicate whether they are replacing singular or plural words and give the location of the object:
EXAMPLES OF DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS:
This: singular and near the speaker
That: singular and at a distance from the speaker
These: plural and near the speaker
Those: plural and at a distance from the speaker
Eg. 1.: You take these bags and I'll take those. - ("Those" refers to bags that are at a distance from the speaker.)
Eg. 2: We bought this last year - ("This" refers to something that is sing., near the speaker and readily understood in the context of the conversation.) 33 Indefinite pronouns and their characteristics. The indefinite pronouns (everybody/anybody/somebody/all/each/every/some/none/one) do not substitute for specific nouns but function themselves as nouns (Everyone is wondering if any is left.) One of the chief difficulties we have with the indefinite pronouns lies in the fact that "everybody" feels as though it refers to more than one person, but it takes a singular verb. (Everybody is accounted for.) If you think of this word as meaning "every single body," the confusion usually disappears. The indefinite pronoun none can be either singular or plural, depending on its context. None is nearly always plural (meaning "not any") except when something else in the sentence makes us regard it as a singular (meaning "not one"), as in "None of the food is fresh." Some can be singular or plural depending on whether it refers to something countable or noncountable.
There are other indefinite pronouns, words that double as Determiners: enough, few, fewer, less, little, many, much, several, more, most, all, both, every, each, any, either, neither, none, some
Few will be chosen; fewer will finish. Little is expected.
34 Negative pronouns and their characteristics. A pronoun that indicates the absence of people or other entities. In English, the negative pronouns are "neither," "nobody," "none," "no one" and "nothing." In Spanish, the negative pronouns are nada (meaning "nothing"), nadie (meaning "nobody") and ninguno (meaning "none" and referring to people or things). (Ninguno also exists in a feminine form, ninguna, and very rarely in a plural form that is sometimes considered substandard,
ningunos or ningunas.) Note that in both languages many of these words are sometimes used as other parts of speech. In both English and Spanish, the the negative pronouns can function as either the subject of a sentence or the object of a verb or preposition. Because Spanish permits (and sometimes requires) the use of double negatives in sentences where English does not, negative pronouns aren't always translated as negative pronouns in English. Note that while the English "none" is usually treated as a grammatical plural, the Spanish equivalent ninguno is singular.
Nobody can guarantee you a number one position.
In reality, they know nothing.
35Universal pronouns and their characteristics.
The table below provides examples of some universal pronouns in use.
The family has five boys. Each is doing well in his own field. ("Each" refers to 'every single one of the five boys') The campus has twenty buildings. Each has its own character. ("Each" refers to 'every single one of the twenty buildings')
Fifty guests were invited. All the guests are here. ("All" refers to 'the fifty guests as a group') I have ordered five books. All of them have arrived. ("All" refers to 'all the five books')
Everyone There are forty students in Ahmad's class. Everyone likes him. ("Everyone" refers to 'every single one of the forty students')
Everything Everything went on smoothly at the party. ("Everything" refers to 'every single activity')
Universal pronouns indicate all objects (persons and nonpersons) as one whole or any representative of the group separately. They are: all, both, each, every, everything, everybody, everyone, and either. Of these only everybody and everyone have the category of case (everybody - everybody's, everyone - everyone's), others have no grammatical categories. These pronouns, as can be seen from the definition, differ in their reference. Some universal pronouns (all, everybody) have always
collective or all-embracing reference. Two pronouns (both, either) indicate a group comprising two persons or non-persons treated either as a whole (both) or as consisting of individual objects in a group of two (either - каждый из двух). In accordance with their reference both takes a predicate verb in the plural and either - in the singular. The article is usually
placed after both. Some pronouns (every, each, and either) always have individual reference (каждый, другой), therefore they agree with the predicate-verb in the singular. e.g. She searched every corner, but found nothing. Each of them keeps silent. Two pronouns (everybody, everyone) may have both collective and individual reference. In the first case it corresponds to the Russian все, in the second case to the Russian каждый. This or that reference is generally marked not so much by the predicateverb,
as by correlation with personal or possessive pronouns.
36Detaching pronouns and their characteristics. Detaching pronouns indicate the detachment of some objectfrom other objects of the same class. There are only two pronouns of this subclass - other, another. They are used both as noun-pronouns and as adjective-pronouns. e.g. One of the girls was pretty, while the other was terribly plain. He gulped one cup, then another.
I live on the other side. Both other and another have the category of case (other - other's, another - another's), but only other has the category of number (other -others). The pronoun other has dual reference, personal and nonpersonal, and correlates with all subclasses of nouns in the singular and in the plural: e.g. Other times have come, other people are of importance. Unlike the majority of pronouns, other (both as a nounpronoun and as an adjective-pronoun) can be preceded by the definite article and other determiners. e.g. The other tree was half-withered. Then he gave me his other hand. That other question quite upset me. Show me some other pictures. His sister's other child was only five then. In these sentences other is used as an attribute. The attributive function can also be performed by the noun-pronoun other in the genitive case, as in: The other's mouth twitched where other's stands for some noun from the previous context. The pronoun another also has a dual reference, but it correlates only with count nouns in the singular. e.g. Will you have another cup? Then another runner came into view. Another has two meanings: 1) a different one
e.g. I don't very much like this dress, will you show me another? (другое) 2) one more, one in addition to the one or ones mentioned before e.g. She asked me a question, then another. (еще один) Detaching pronouns can be used as subject, object, adverbial modifier and attribute.
37Reciprocal pronouns and their characteristics. The reciprocal pronouns are each other and one another. They are convenient forms for combining ideas. If Bob gave Alicia a book for Christmas and Alicia gave Bob a book for Christmas, we can say that they gave each other books (or that they gave books to each other).
My mother and I give each other a hard time.
If more than two people are involved (let's say a whole book club), we would say that they gave one another books. This rule (if it is one) should be applied circumspectly. It's quite possible for the exchange of books within this book club, for example, to be between individuals, making "each other" just as appropriate as "one another."
Reciprocal pronouns can also take possessive forms:
They borrowed each other's ideas. The scientists in this lab often use one another's equipment.
38. Interrogative pronouns and their characteristics. The interrogative pronouns (who/which/what) introduce questions. (What is that? Who will help me? Which do you prefer?) Which is generally used with more specific reference than what. If we're taking a quiz and I ask "Which questions give you the most trouble?", I am referring to specific questions on that quiz. If I ask "What questions give you most trouble"? I could be asking what kind of questions on that quiz (or what kind of question, generically, in general) gives you trouble. The interrogative pronouns also act as Determiners: It doesn't matter which beer you buy. He doesn't know whose car he hit. In this determiner role, they are sometimes called interrogative adjectives.
Like the relative pronouns, the interrogative pronouns introduce noun clauses, and like the relative pronouns, the interrogative pronouns play a subject role in the clauses they introduce:
We know who is guilty of this crime. I already told the detective what I know about it.
39.Conjunctive pronouns and their characteristics: A Conjunctive pronoun is one that connects a clause to the rest of the sentence.
The conjunctive pronouns what, whatever, whatsoever, whoever, whosoever, whomever, whomsoever, whichever, and whichsoever, Who, whose, whom, which, what.are used in indefinite noun clauses. Conjunctive pronouns are identical with the interrogative pronouns as to their morphological, referential and syntactical characteristics. They refer to persons and non-persons. The difference between the two subclasses lies in that the conjunctive pronouns, along with their syntactical function in the clause, connect
subordinate clauses to the main clause. They are used to connect subject, predicative, and some adverbial clauses, or rather to indicate the subordinate status of these clauses, as the sentence may begin with the clause they introduce. e.g. Who did it will repent. (who opens the subject clause) I know who did it. (who opens the object clause) They were what you call model girls. (what opens the predicative clause) Whatever you may do you can't save the situation. (whatever opens the adverbial concessive clause) Conjunctive pronouns always combine two functions - notional and structural. They are notional words because they function as parts of the sentence within a clause and they are structural words because they serve as connectors or markers of the subordinate clause. The compounds whoever, whatever and whichever introduce subject and adverbial clauses and have a concessive meaning: e.g. Whoever told you this may be mistaken. Whichever you choose, I'll help you. Whatever may be the consequences, I insist on going on.
40.Relative pronouns and their characteristics: The relative pronouns (who/whoever/which/that) relate groups of words to nouns or other pronouns (The student who studies hardest usually does the best.). The word who connects or relates the subject, student, to the verb within the dependent clause (studies). Choosing correctly between which and that and between who and whom leads to what are probably the most Frequently Asked Questions about English grammar. For help with which/that, refer to the Notorious Confusables article on those words (including the hyperlink to Michael Quinion's article on this usage and the links to relevant quizzes). Generally, we use "which" to introduce clauses that are parenthetical in nature (i.e., that can be removed from the sentence without changing the essential meaning of the sentence). For that reason, a "which clause" is often set off with a comma or a pair of commas. "That clauses," on the other hand, are usually deemed indispensable for the meaning of a sentence and are not set off with commas. The pronoun which refers to things; who (and its forms) refers to people; that usually refers to things, but it can also refer to people in a general kind of way. For help with who/whom refer to the section on Consistency. We also recommend that you take the quizzes on the use of who and whom at the end of that section.
The expanded form of the relative pronouns — whoever, whomever, whatever — are known as indefinite relative pronouns. A couple of sample sentences should suffice to demonstrate why they are called "indefinite":
The coach will select whomever he pleases. He seemed to say whatever came to mind. Whoever crosses this line first will win the race.
What is often an indefinite relative pronoun:
She will tell you what you need to know. 41. 42 ? A numeral is a word, functioning most typically as an adjective or pronoun, that expresses a
number, and relation to the number, such as one of the following:
o Quantity o Sequence o Frequency o Fraction
Cardinal numeral- A cardinal numeral is a numeral of the class whose members are -considered basic in form -used in counting, and -used in expressing how many objects are referred to. Distributive numeral- A distributive numeral is a numeral which expresses a group of the number specified.(In pairs, By the dozen) Multiplicative numeral- A multiplicative numeral is a numeral that expresses how many fold or how many times.(once, twice) Ordinal numeral- An ordinal numeral is a numeral belonging to a class whose members designate positions in a sequence.(First, second, third) Partitive numeral- A partitive numeral is a numeral that expresses a fraction. (half, third) 43. Morphological characteristics of statives. A stative verb is one which asserts that one of its arguments has a particular property (possibly in relation to its other arguments). Statives differ from other aspectual classes of verbs in that they are static; they have no duration and no distinguished endpoint. Verbs which are not stative are often called dynamic verbs. 44. Modal words and their semantic division.
One of these verb forms: can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, ought to, used to, need, had better, and dare. They are all used with other verbs to express ideas such as possibility, permission, or intention. 45. Interjection and its types.
An interjection is a part of speech that usually has no grammatical connection with the rest of the sentence and simply expresses emotion on the part of the speaker, although most interjections have clear definitions. Filled pauses such as uh, er, um, are also considered interjections. Interjections are generally uninflected function words and have sometimes been seen as sentence-words, because they can replace or be replaced by a whole sentence (they are holophrastic). Sometimes, however, interjections combine with other words to form sentences, but not with finite verbs. 46. Synthetical and analytical verb forms. English verbs come in several forms. For example, the verb to sing can be: to sing, sing, sang, sung, singing or sings. English tenses may be quite complicated, but the forms that we use to make the tenses are actually very simple! With the exception of the verb to be, English main verbs have only 4, 5 or 6 forms. To be has 9 forms. Do not confuse verb forms with tenses. We use the different verb forms to make the tenses, but they are not the same thing. Forms: Infinitive, base- imperative, base- present simple, Base - After modal auxiliary verbs, Past simple, Past Participle, Present Participle, 3rd person singular( present simple). 47. Morphological composition of verbs According to their morphological composition verbs can be divided into: - Simple verbs - consist of only one root morpheme: ask, build, go - Derivative verbs - are composed of one root morpheme and one or more derivational morphemes (prefixes and suffixes).The main verb forming suffixes are: -ate, -en, -fy, -ize, as in:organize, justify,
blacken, decorate. The most widely spread prefixes are:de-, dis-, mis-, re, un-, as in: decompose, dislike, misunderstand, rewrite, and unpack. - Compound verbs consist of at least two stems: overgrow,undertake. - Phrasal verbs consist of a verbal stem and an adverbial particle, which is sometimes referred to as postposition. Postposition often changes the meaning of the verb with which it is associated. Thus there are phrasal verbs whose meaning is different from the meaning of their components: e.g. to give up, to give in. There are other phrasal verbs in which the original meaning is preserved: to stand up, to sit down, to come in, to take off, to put on.
48. Semantic classifications of the verb
1. Causative/inchoative alternation 2. Middle alternation 3. Instrument subject alternation 4. *With/against alternation 5. *Conative alternation 6. *Body-Part possessor ascension alternation: 7. Unintentional interpretation available (some verbs)
49.Category of tense of the verb In English, there are three basic tenses: present, past, and future. Each has a perfect form, indicating completed action; each has a progressive form, indicating ongoing action; and each has a perfect progressive form, indicating ongoing action that will be completed at some definite time. 50. Category of aspect of the verb.
Perfective (aorist, simple; see above): 'I struck the bell.' (single action) Perfect (sometimes confusingly called "perfective"; see above): 'I have arrived at the cinema.'
(hence, I am now in the cinema) Progressive (continuous): 'I am eating.' (action is in progress) Habitual: 'I walk home from work.' (every day)
'I would walk [OR: used to walk] home from work.' (past habit)
Imperfective (either progressive or habitual): 'I am walking to work' (progressive) or 'I walk to work every day' (habitual).
Prospective: 'I am about to eat' OR: 'I am going to eat." Recent Perfect or After Perfect: 'I just ate' OR: 'I am after eating." (Hiberno-English) Inceptive: 'I am beginning to eat.' Inchoative (not clearly distinguished from prospective): 'The apples are about to ripen.' Continuative: 'I am still eating.' Terminative: 'I am finishing my meal.' Conative: 'I am trying to eat.' Cessative: 'I am quitting smoking.' Defective : 'I almost fell.' Pausative: 'I stopped working for a while.' Resumptive: 'I resumed sleeping.' Punctual: 'I slept.' Durative: 'I slept for an hour.' Delimitative: 'I slept for a while.' Protractive: 'The argument went on and on.' Iterative: 'I read the same books again and again.' Frequentative: 'It sparkled', contrasted with 'It sparked'. Or, 'I run around', vs. 'I run'. Experiential: 'I have gone to school many times.' Intentional: 'I listened carefully.'
Accidental: 'I knocked over the chair.' Generic: 'Mangoes grow on trees.' Intensive: 'It glared.' Moderative: 'It shone.' Attenuative: 'It glimmered.' Semelfactive (momentane): 'The mouse squeaked once.' (contrasted to 'The mouse
squeaked/was squeaking.') 51. Category of voice of the verb Voice is the form of the verb which serves to show whether the subject of the sentence is the agent (the doer) or the object of the action expressed by the predicate verb. There are two voices in English – the active voice and the passive voice. The active voice shows that the person or thing denoted by the subject of the sentence is the agent of the action expressed by the predicate verb, that it acts. e.g. “I deny that,” said John. We know you’ve been cheating us. The passive voice serves to show that the person or thing denoted by the subject of the sentence is not the agent (doer) of the action expressed by the predicate verb but is the object (receiver) of this action. e.g. Students are examined twice a year. This tree was planted by my grandfather. 52. Category of mood of the verb The meaning of the category of mood is the attitude of the speaker or the writer towards the content of the sentence, whether the speaker considers the action real, unreal, desirable, necessary, etc. There are 3 moods in English: a) theindicative ( tr. ozn.) b) the imperative (tr. rozkaz.) c) the subjunctive (tr. przypusz. ?) 53 Present indefinite/simple tense – formation, meaning and usage Present simple We use: 1)For permanent states, repeated actions and daily routines 2)For general truths and laws of nature 3)For timetables (planes, trains, etc. and programmes 4)For sports commentaries, reviews and narration 5)To give instructions or directions (instead of the imperative) The PS is used with the following time expressions: usually, often, always, etc., everyday/ week/ month/ year, in the morning/ afternoon/ evening, at night, at the weekend, on Mondays, etc. Example: The plane from Brussels arrives at 8.30 Construction: subject + verb (in 3 personal form we add –s or –es) Question: Do/Does(does-in 3 personal form)+subject +verb Negative: Subject + do/does+ not+ verb
54 Present progressive/continuous tense – formation, meaning and usage Present continuous We use: 1)For actions taking place now, a t the moment of speaking 2)For temporary actions; that is actions that are going on around now, but not at the actual moment of speaking, for example: I’m looking for a new job these days 3)With adverbs such as: always, constantly, continually, etc. for actions which happen very often, usually to express annoyance, irritation or anger, for example: I’, always meeting Sara when I go shopping 4)For actions that we have already arranged to do in the near future, especially when the time and place have been decided 5)For changing or developing situations The PC is used with the following time expressions: now, at the moment, at present, these days, still, nowadays, today, tonight, etc. Example: I’m going to school at the moment Construction: Subject + the right form of the verb ‘to be’ + ing Question: the right form of the verb ‘to be’ + subject + verb + ing Negative: Subject + the right form of the verb ‘to be’ + not + verb + ing 55 Present perfect tense – formation, meaning and usage Present Perfect We use: 1)For an action which started in the past and continues up to the present, especially with state verbs such as be, have, like, know, etc. In this case we often use for and since 2)For an action which has recently finished and whose result is visible in the present 3)For an action which happened at an unsteadied time in the past. The exact time is not mentioned because it is either unknown or unimportant. The emphasis is placed on the action. 4)For an action which has happened within a specific time period which is not over at the moment of speaking. We often use words and expressions such as today, this morning/ evening/ week, etc. Example: I have broken my leg We use the PP to announce a piece of news and the past simple or past continuous to give more details about it. The PP is used with the following time expressions: for, since, already, yet, always, just, ever, never, so far, today, this week/month, etc. how long, lately, recently, still, etc. Construction: Subject + the right form of the verb “to have (has/have) + past participle (for regular verb we add –ed at the end of the verb) Question: the right form of the verb “to have (has/have) + subject + past participle (for regular verb we add –ed at the end of the verb) Negative: Subject + the right form of the verb “to have (has/have)+ not + past participle (for regular verb we add –ed at the end of the verb) 56 Present perfect continuous tense – formation, meaning and usage Present perfect continuous We use: 1)To put emphasis on the duration of an action which started in the past and continuous up to the present, especially with time expressions such as for, since, all morning/ day/ year, etc. 2)For an action which started in the past and lasted for some time. The action may have finished or may still be going on. The result of the action is visible in the present
3)To express anger, irritation or annoyance With the verbs like, work, teach and feel=(have a particular emotion) we can use the present perfect or present perfect continuous with no difference in meaning, example: We have lived/ have been living here for 20 years. The PPC is used with the following time expressions: for, since, how long, lately, recently Example: Somebody has been giving away our plans Construction: Subject + the right form of the verb “to have (has/have)+ been + verb + -ing Question: the right form of the verb “to have (has/have)+ subject + been + verb + -ing Negative: Subject + the right form of the verb “to have (has/have)+ not + been + verb + -ing 57 Past indefinite/simple tense – formation, meaning and usage Past simple We use: 1)For an action which happened at a definite time in the past. The time is stated, already known or implied 2)For actions which happened immediately one after the another in the past 3)For past habits or states which are now finished. The PS is used with the following time expressions: yesterday, then, when, how long ago…?, last night/ week/ month, etc. three days / hours/ weeks, etc. ago Example: First she paid the driver, then she go out of the taxi Construction: subject +the verb in the past (second column) or if the verb is regular we add –ed at the end of the verb Question: did + subject+ verb Negative: subject + did + not + verb 58 Past progressive/continuous tense – formation, meaning and usage Past Continuous We use: 1)For an action which was in progress at a stated time in the past. We don’t mention when the action started or finished 2)For an action which was in progress when another action interrupted it. We use the PC for the action in the progress (longer action) and the past simple for the action which interrupted it (shorter action) 3)For two or more simultaneous past actions 4)To describe atmosphere, setting, etc. in the introduction to a story before we describe the main events The PC is used with the following time expressions: when, while, as, all morning/ evening/ day/ night, etc. Example: She was talking on the mobile phone while she was driving to work Construction: Subject + the right form of the verb ‘to be’ in the past tense (was/were) + verb + -ing Question: the right form of the verb ‘to be’ in the past tense (was/were) + subject + verb + -ing Negative: Subject + the right form of the verb ‘to be’ in the past tense (was/were) + not+ verb + -ing 59 Past perfect tense – formation, meaning and usage Past perfect We use: 1)For an action which happened before another past action or before a stated time in the past 2)For an action which finished in the past and whose result was visible in the past The PP is the past equivalent of the present perfect
The PP is used with the following time expressions: before, after, already, just, for, since, till/ until, when, by, by the time, never, etc. Example: She had finished work when she met her friends for coffee. Construction: subject + had + past participle or if the verb is regular we add –ed at the end of the verb Question: Had + subject + past participle or if the verb is regular we add –ed at the end of the verb Negative: subject + had +not + past participle or if the verb is regular we add –ed at the end of the verb 60 Past perfect continuous tense – formation, meaning and usage Past perfect continuous We use: 1)To put emphasis on the duration of an action which started and finished in the past before another past action or a stated time in the past, usually with since or for 2)For an action which lasted for some time in the past and whose result was visible in the past. The PPC is the past equivalent of the present perfect continuous The PPC is used with the following time expressions: for, since, how long, before, until, etc. Example: they had been looking for a house for six months before they found one they liked Construction: Subject + had + been + verb + -ing Question: Had + subject + been + verb + -ing Negative: Subject + had+ not + been + verb + -ing 61. Future indefinite/simple tense – formation, meaning and usage. Simple Future has two different forms in English: "will" and "be going to." Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two very different meanings. These different meanings might seem too abstract at first, but with time and practice, the differences will become clear. Both "will" and "be going to" refer to a specific time in the future.
FORM Will: [will + verb] Examples:
You will help him later. Will you help him later? You will not help him later.
FORM Be Going To: [am/is/are + going to + verb] Examples:
You are going to meet Jane tonight. Are you going to meet Jane tonight? You are not going to meet Jane tonight.
Subject + Auxiliary verb + Verb
I/a dog etc. will go/take etc. Questions (interrogative sentences):
Auxiliary verb +
will I/a dog etc. go/take etc.
Auxiliary verb + not +
I/a dog etc. will not/won't go/take etc.
USE 1 "Will" to Express a Voluntary Action "Will" often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. A voluntary action is one the speaker offers to do for someone else. Often, we use "will" to respond to someone else's complaint or request for help. We also use "will" when we request that someone help us or volunteer to do something for us. Similarly, we use "will not" or "won't" when we refuse to voluntarily do something. Examples:
I will send you the information when I get it. I will translate the email, so Mr. Smith can read it. Will you help me move this heavy table? Will you make dinner? I will not do your homework for you. I won't do all the housework myself! A: I'm really hungry.
B: I'll make some sandwiches. A: I'm so tired. I'm about to fall asleep.
B: I'll get you some coffee. A: The phone is ringing.
B: I'll get it.
USE 2 "Will" to Express a Promise "Will" is usually used in promises. Examples:
I will call you when I arrive. If I am elected President of the United States, I will make sure everyone has access to
inexpensive health insurance. I promise I will not tell him about the surprise party. Don't worry, I'll be careful. I won't tell anyone your secret.
USE 3 "Be going to" to Express a Plan "Be going to" expresses that something is a plan. It expresses the idea that a person intends to do something in the future. It does not matter whether the plan is realistic or not.
Examples: He is going to spend his vacation in Hawaii. She is not going to spend her vacation in Hawaii. A: When are we going to meet each other tonight?
B: We are going to meet at 6 PM. I'm going to be an actor when I grow up. Michelle is going to begin medical school next year. They are going to drive all the way to Alaska. Who are you going to invite to the party? A: Who is going to make John's birthday cake?
B: Sue is going to make John's birthday cake.
USE 4 "Will" or "Be Going to" to Express a Prediction Both "will" and "be going to" can express the idea of a general prediction about the future. Predictions are guesses about what might happen in the future. In "prediction" sentences, the subject usually has little control over the future and therefore USES 1-3 do not apply. In the following examples, there is no difference in meaning. Examples:
The year 2222 will be a very interesting year. The year 2222 is going to be a very interesting year. John Smith will be the next President. John Smith is going to be the next President. The movie "Zenith" will win several Academy Awards. The movie "Zenith" is going to win several Academy Awards.
IMPORTANT In the Simple Future, it is not always clear which USE the speaker has in mind. Often, there is more than one way to interpret a sentence's meaning.
No Future in Time Clauses Like all future forms, the Simple Future cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Simple Future, Simple Present is used. Examples:
When you will arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Not Correct When you arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Correct
ADVERB PLACEMENT The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc. Examples:
You will never help him. Will you ever help him? You are never going to meet Jane. Are you ever going to meet Jane?
ACTIVE / PASSIVE Examples:
John will finish the work by 5:00 PM. ACTIVE The work will be finished by 5:00 PM. PASSIVE Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight. ACTIVE A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight. PASSIVE
62. Future progressive/continuous tense – formation, meaning and usage. Future Continuous has two different forms: "will be doing " and "be going to be doing." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Continuous forms are usually interchangeable.
FORM Future Continuous with "Will" [will be + present participle] Examples:
You will be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight. Will you be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight? You will not be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.
FORM Future Continuous with "Be Going To " [am/is/are + going to be + present participle] Examples:
You are going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight. Are you going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight? You are not going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.
REMEMBER: It is possible to use either "will" or "be going to" to create the Future Continuous with little difference in meaning.
How do we make the Future Continuous Tense? The structure of the future continuous tense is:
subject + auxiliary verb WILL + auxiliary verb BE + main verb
invariable invariable present participle
willbebase + ing
For negative sentences in the future continuous tense, we insert not between will and be. For question sentences, we exchange the subject and will. Look at these example sentences with the future continuous tense:
subjectauxiliary verbauxiliary verb main verb
+ I will be working at 10am.
+ You will be lying on a beach tomorrow.
- She will not be using the car.
- We will not be having dinner at home.
? Will you be playing football?