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47PROVA DE INGLÊS - 1a Etapa - Caderno 1
1 PROVA DE INGLÊS
INSTRUCTIONS: Read the texts carefully and then choose the alternative which
correctly completes the statement in each question.
TEXT 1 – Questions from 46 to 50
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In broad terms, political corruption is the misuse of public
(governmental) power for illegitimate, usually secret, private advantage.
All forms of government are susceptible to political corruption. Forms
of corruption vary, but the most common are patronage, bribery, extortion,
influence peddling, fraud, embezzlement, and nepotism. While corruption
often facilitates criminal enterprise such as drug trafficking, money laundering,
and criminal prostitution, it is not restricted to these organized crime activities,
and it does not always support or shield other crimes.
What constitutes corruption differs depending on the country or
jurisdiction. Certain political funding practices that are legal in one place
World map of the Corruption Perceptions Index
PROVA DE INGLÊS - 1a Etapa - Caderno 148
may be illegal in another. In some countries, police and prosecutors have
broad discretion over who to arrest and charge, and the line between
discretion and corruption can be difficult to draw, as in racial profiling. In
countries with strong interest group politics, practices that could easily
constitute corruption elsewhere are sometimes sanctified as official group
and_bribe-givers Access: Apr. 2006.(Adapted)
According to the text, whenever public power is used for illegal purposes,
A) crime activities are restricted.
B) personal benefits are reached.
C) political corruption is banned.
D) public advantage is achieved.
A map was included in the text in order to show that corruption is a
A) long banned enterprise.
B) government top secret.
C) few nations’ problem.
D) worldwide phenomenon.
49PROVA DE INGLÊS - 1a Etapa - Caderno 1
1 QUESTION 48
According to the text, the notion of corruption
A) changes from place to place.
B) constitutes legal activities.
C) reflects the official elections.
D) results in racial profiling.
“Racial profiling” (line 13) is mentioned in the text as a kind of practice
A) difficult to categorize.
B) impossible to fight.
C) resultant from arrest.
D) seen as corruption.
Both occurrences of the word “it” in lines 7 and 8 refer to
A) criminal enterprise.
B) organized crime.
C) political corruption.
D) racial illegitimacy.
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TEXT 2 – Questions from 51 to 54
Extent and nature of petty
corruption in South Africa
Although grand corruption
like that associated with the arms
deal receives most media attention,
petty corruption can be as damaging
if left unchecked. According to the
ISS 2003 National Victims of Crime survey, petty corruption was the second
most prevalent crime in the country after housebreaking. Of most concern
is that many citizens do not know how to report corruption, do not believe
that doing so will change anything, and, despite good whistleblower
provisions, are afraid of the consequences if they do report.
It should be noted from the outset that many incidents of corruption
or attempted corruption were probably not reported to the survey. Some
victims may be aware of their perceived ‘complicity’ as the bribe payer
(albeit on demand, possibly accompanied with the threat of withholding a
service) and would worry that by answering the questions they might
implicate themselves. Others may not know that being asked for a bribe in
return for a service constitutes a crime, and may instead see this as a ‘normal’
transaction fee required to ensure the delivery of services. Similarly, requests
for ‘favours’ and ‘gifts’ may be overlooked as a form of corruption. These
acts typically involve the purchase of a cold drink, alcohol or a meal in
return for speeding up a service or the efficient delivery of a service. Some
members of the public may regard this as an accepted form of gratitude.
The view that it would not change anything, and the lack of knowledge
about where and how to report (which together represent two thirds of
responses) could be addressed in the short term by a sustained awareness
campaign by the public service. This should be geared towards informing
citizens of why they need to counter corruption, thus popularising a
whistleblowing culture, as well as ensuring that people know what channels
to use to report (i.e. through national hotlines).
51PROVA DE INGLÊS - 1a Etapa - Caderno 1
1 A dedicated public education campaign is needed to address the lack
of awareness about what constitutes corruption and how to report it.
Consensus among the elite will not be enough to stop corrupt practices.
Ultimately broad public participation is required to promote a culture of
whistleblowing in the public and private sectors, but also to ensure that
corruption is prevented in future.
Hennie van Vuuren, Institute for Security Studies
[email protected] Access: Apr. 2006. (Adapted)
This text contains all the following topics, EXCEPT
A) corruption effects.
B) army transactions.
C) research findings.
D) small irregularities.
The people studied in the survey were
A) counsellors of justice.
B) officers in the police.
C) staff in security firms.
D) victims of illegal acts.
PROVA DE INGLÊS - 1a Etapa - Caderno 152
Whistleblower provisions could be interpreted as a means of
A) committing crimes.
B) providing whistles.
C) reporting corruption.
D) rewarding reports.
The text argues that the best way to fight petty corruption is to
A) conduct surveys.
B) give punishment.
C) interrupt services.
D) raise awareness.
53PROVA DE INGLÊS - 1a Etapa - Caderno 1
1 TEXT 3 – Questions 55 and 56
http://www.cartoonistgroup.com/store/add.php?iid=10842 - Access: Apr. 2006.
The speaker in the cartoon is trying to
A) denounce his old enemies.
B) justify his corrupt actions.
C) promote his promising career.
D) ridicule his political opponents.
The speaker in the cartoon wants to say that it is all right to
A) favour his beloved ones.
B) get people to do his work.
C) show us how to be smart.
D) take friends out of business.
PROVA DE INGLÊS - 1a Etapa - Caderno 154
TEXT 4 – Questions 57 and 58
http://www.cartoonistgroup.com/store/add.php?iid=1880 - Access: Apr. 2006.
The cartoonist wants the reader to believe that Senator Krupt
A) has been paid by the press.
B) has done something wrong.
C) has gained people’s trust.
D) has got a rather unfair trial.
The word they in this cartoon refers to the
55PROVA DE INGLÊS - 1a Etapa - Caderno 1
1 TEXT 5 – Questions 59 and 60
http://www.cartoonstock.com/directory/b/business_men.asp - Access: Apr. 2006.
We can say the speaker in the cartoon sounds
The cartoon shows that a person can go out of prison if he
A) calls for man’s justice.
B) has money for bribery.
C) makes good friends.
D) proves his innocence.