english, Упражнения из Английский язык. Kazan State University
PaolaDigarda
PaolaDigarda29 April 2016

english, Упражнения из Английский язык. Kazan State University

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Corso di laurea in Scienze della Comunicazione LINGUA INGLESE

GRAMMAR SECTIONS 8 & 10 (ADVANCED LEVEL)

Topic 8: Mood & Modality Topic 10: Complement Clauses

II ANNO MODEL EXAM QUESTIONS

Solutions

Lingua Inglese - a.a. 2014/15 TOPIC 8 (livello medio-avanzato): MOOD & MODALITY

A. ‘Remote’ forms of modals. In the three items that follow you are given the basic content of three conditional sentences. The task involves formulating these sentences correctly, choosing the appropriate verbs forms and using modal verbs were necessary. Item (1) requires a different treatment from Items (2) & (3). In item (1) the task consists in rewriting the sentences (using a ‘REMOTE’ modal) so that it presents the events/situations as currently ‘not envisaged’. In items (2) & (3) the task consists in formulating the sentences (using a ‘REMOTE’ modal and any other auxiliaries that are necessary) so that they are read as ‘retrospective evaluations’ concerning past time.

1. “if anything similar to the Costa Concordia disaster take place in the Venice Lagoon, the consequences for the local eco-system be catastrophic” >> If anything similar to the Costa Concordia disaster took place in the Venice Lagoon, the consequences for the local eco-system wouldbe catastrophic. >> If anything similar to the Costa Concordia disaster were to take place in the Venice Lagoon, the consequences for the local eco-system wouldbe catastrophic. >> Were anything similar to the Costa Concordia disaster to take place in the Venice Lagoon, the consequences for the local eco-system wouldbe catastrophic.

2. “if the Costa Concordia sink just a couple of miles away from land, the evacuation of the ship not be nearly so fast or so successful”

[ The Costa Concordia sank within a few metres of a harbour ] >> If the Costa Concordia had sunk just a couple of miles away from land, the evacuation of the ship would not have been nearly so fast or so successful. >> Had the Costa Concordia sunk just a couple of miles away from land, the evacuation of the ship would not have been nearly so fast or so successful.

3. “if, roughly twenty-five years ago, the cruise industry not decide to base its operations

on gigantic ships capable of accommodating thousands of passengers, cruising remain the preserve of the very rich ”

[ roughly twenty-five years ago the cruise industry decided to base its operations on gigantic ships capable of accommodating thousands of passengers ]

>> If, roughly twenty-five years ago, the cruise industry had not decided to base its operations on gigantic ships capable of accommodating thousands of passengers, cruising would have remained the preserve of the very rich. >> Had the cruise industry not decided, roughly twenty-five years ago, to base its operations on gigantic ships capable of accommodating thousands of passengers, cruising would have remained the preserve of the very rich.

B. Rewrite the sentences (or parts of sentences) that follow incorporating the key words given and eliminating the word (or words) underlined. The aim is to produce a sentence that is a functional equivalent of the original. Any necessary elements (modal verbs, auxiliaries, negation) can be added. Lexical items can also be added/omitted as necessary.. [1 point for each item ]

1. If a serious incident involving a cruise ship happens in the Venice Lagoon, the blame will ultimately lie with the city authorities, who have allowed cruise traffic to increase. KEY WORD: should >> Should a serious incident involving a cruise ship happen in the Venice Lagoon, the blame will ultimately lie with the city authorities, who have allowed cruise traffic to increase.

COMMON ERROR: *Should a serious incident involving a cruise ship happens in the Venice Lagoon [No finite inflection on the lexical verb following a modal ]

2 Although the evacuation of the Costa Concordia was ‘one of the most successful operations of its type ever performed’, no less than 33 lives were lost. KEY WORD: may..... but >> The evacuation of the Costa Concordia may have been ‘one of the most successful operations of its type ever performed’, but no less than 33 lives were lost.

NOTE: often in the second clause (introduced by but) we find a more elaborate formulation designed to underline the factual status and importance of the content:

>> The evacuation of the Costa Concordia may have been ‘one of the most successful operations of its type ever performed’, but the fact remains that no less than 33 lives were lost. >> The evacuation of the Costa Concordia may have been ‘one of the most successful operations of its type ever performed’, but it remains the case that no less than 33 lives were lost. >> The evacuation of the Costa Concordia may have been ‘one of the most successful operations of its type ever performed’, but it remains true that no less than 33 lives were lost.

3. [ As a result of the Costa Concordia disaster, demand for cruises has dropped.] The cruise companies have had to cut prices drastically. KEY WORD: no choice >> The cruise companies have had no choice but to cut prices drastically. >> The cruise companies have had no choice other than to cut prices drastically.

COMMON ERROR: *The cruise companies have had no choice [ ] to cut prices drastically

C. Examine the three short texts below, paying particular attention to the parts printed in bold type. Check whether they are correctly formed and appropriate to the context. If you judge a given formulation to be incorrect or inappropriate to the context, then rewrite it so that it is correct and appropriate. Otherwise, tick the ‘CORRECT’ box. [1 point for each item ]

1. [ When, about fifteen years ago, the first massive cruise ships with 20 decks and a passenger capacity of 3000 began to appear,] many people pointed out that these ships would have been difficult to evacuate in an emergency situation. >> [ ] CORRECT >> [ x ] INCORRECT ------> REWRITE: ...many people pointed out that these ships would be difficult to evacuate in an emergency situation.

NOTE: the modal verb would expresses ‘prediction’. The important point is that here it appears in an ‘indirect discourse’ context, as part of the complement clause following the verb point out. The time reference of this verb is ‘past’ (as shown by the Past Tense form pointed), so we are dealing with a prediction made at a given time in the past (and relating to possible events located in the future in relation to that time). In indirect discourse contexts like this, would can have a past time interpretation (in other words, the whole clause here is interpreted as the past time equivalent of ‘These ships will be difficult to evacuate in an emergency situation’). Normally, outside indirect discourse contexts, would (though originally the Past Tense form of will) is NOT given a past time interpretation (cf. I would go to that concert tomorrow but I have a prior engagement). In indirect discourse contexts, then, would functions simultaneously as (i) a verb of prediction, and (ii) an indicator of past time. In this respect would is different from the ‘conditional form’ of Italian verbs, which can only be interpreted as referring to past time when it is realised on an auxiliary verb (avrebbe/sarebbe) and followed by the lexical verb in the participle form (...che sarebbe stato difficile...) - as a sort of ‘tempo composto’ in Italian terms. In English, the addition of the auxiliary have followed by the participle form of the lexical verb (i.e. the ‘perfect construct’) is superfluous. 2. [Today’s GPS systems mean that the position and course of any ship equipped with a

transponder can be seen on Internet without any problem.] So, it must not have escaped the Costa Cruises management that their ships were approaching dangerously close to Giglio and other islands. >> [ ] CORRECT >> [ x ] INCORRECT ------> REWRITE: So, it cannot have escaped the Costa Cruises management that their ships were approaching dangerously close to Giglio and other islands.

NOTE: the sense to be expressed here (using a modal verb) is: ‘we are forced to conclude that it had not escaped the Costa Cruises management that their ships...’ (i.e. they knew). This is a supposition or ‘epistemic evaluation’, of the type that consists in excluding the possibility of something being the case. In other words, ‘not possible that x’. The normal way of expressing this in English is to use the modal can’t (rather than using the negative form of modal must).

Also possible (with a slightly different sense) is: So, it should not have escaped the Costa Cruises management that their ships were approaching dangerously close to Giglio and other islands.

3. If the Costa Cruises management had had more awareness of the risks involved in allowing its ships to diverge from their normal course and approach close to islands, then the whole practice would have been abandoned long ago. >> [ x ] CORRECT

Lingua Inglese - a.a. 2014/15 TOPIC 10 (livello medio-avanzato): COMPLEMENT CLAUSES

A. In the paragraphs that follow you will find certain lexical items printed in capitals, and after each of these you will find some content enclosed in square brackets. This content should be formulated as a clause which can function as complement of the lexical item (printed in capitals) that precedes it. In some cases there may be a choice of different formulations (infinitive clause, gerund clause, finite complement clause), but a clausal structure is required (NPs will not be accepted). Please note that in certain case some ‘mediation’ (in the form of a preposition) may be necessary between the lexical item and its complement clause. It may also be necessary to formulate some verbs in the Passive Voice.

Too many visitors in Venice? [1] Some people have launched the IDEA [ we/limit the numbers of day

visitors to the city ]. [2] One proposal INVOLVES [ the City Council/impose an admission charge on tourist groups ]. [3] At first sight, this may look like a good idea, since it seems to offer the POSSIBILITY [ we/reduce the numbers and generate revenue at the same time ]. [4] The extra revenue would undoubtedly come in useful: the highly indebted Italian state could AVOID [ the Italian state/contribute hundreds of millions of tax revenue to the maintenance of the old city ]. [5] Alternatively the money could be directed to long term schemes AIMED [ we/protect the city from the risk of flood ]. [6] But there is a DANGER [ a charge of this type/make much difference to the overall numbers of visitors in the long run - Negative ]. [7] In addition, it might END UP [ more and more people/see it as discriminatory ]. [8] Would Italian day visitors from other parts of Italy have to pay it, or would it just be for foreigners? [9] Would it be just for day visitors or also for those who go to the (not inconsiderable) EXPENSE [ they/pay for a night in one of Venice’s hotels ]. [10] Some people have even GONE AS FAR AS [ they/suggest it might be unconstitutional ]. [11] Others more prosaically CONSIDER [ it/be unworkable ]. [12] In view of all this controversy, it is hardly surprising that the current Mayor of Venice has DECLARED [ he/be against the charge ]. [13] Fewer and fewer people are in fact convinced that it is WORTH [ we/bother with all the administrative complexity of such a charge ].

Write your formulations here: [1] Some people have launched the IDEA [ we/limit the numbers of day visitors to the city ]. >> Some people have launched the ideaof limiting the numbers of day visitors to the city .

NOTE: the N idea (unlike aim, proposal, plan, decision, intention, refusal) normally does not have the property of selecting an infinitive complement clause (??Tom abandoned the idea to spend his holidays in Spain). But, as with many Ns, there is an alternative possibility, which makes use of the P of. This P appears frequently in NPs as a way of linking an NP complement to the head N (the idea of a holiday in Spain). As a general rule, where we can put an NP, we can also put a gerund clause. Thus it is possible to have Tom abandoned the idea of spending his holidays in Spain.

[2] One proposal INVOLVES [ the City Council/impose an admission charge on tourist groups ]. >> One proposal involvesthe City Council imposing an admission charge on tourist groups. >> One proposal involvesan admission charge being imposed (by the City Council) on tourist groups. >> One proposal involvesimposing an admission charge on tourist groups.

NOTE: the V involve does not have the special property of allowing an infinitive clause complement (*The plan involves to go there every day). But it is a normal transitive verb, allowing an NP/Object (The plan involves daily visits). Where an NP can occur, it is possible (at least in principle) to put a gerund clause, and this solution is indeed possible here: The plan involves going there every day.

[3] At first sight, this may look like a good idea, since it seems to offer the POSSIBILITY [ we/reduce the numbers and generate revenue at the same time ]. >> ... it seems to offer the possibilityto reduce the numbers and generate revenue at the same time. >> ... it seems to offer the possibilityof reducing the numbers and generating revenue at the same time.

NOTE: the N possibility allows two ways of attaching clausal material. On the one hand, this N has the special property of allowing an infinitive complement clause (first solution above); on the other hand the P of can be used as a default way of attaching a complement. The complement can either be an NP (possibility of a reduction in numbers) or a gerund clause (second solution above), a clausal structure with the distinguishing property of being able to occur in the same positions as an NP.

[4] The extra revenue would undoubtedly come in useful: the highly indebted Italian state could AVOID [ the Italian state/contribute hundreds of millions of tax revenue to the maintenance of the old city ]. >> .. the highly indebted Italian state could avoidcontributing hundreds of millions of tax revenue to the maintenance of the old city.

COMMON ERROR: *the highly indebted Italian state could avoidto contribute hundreds of millions of tax revenue to the maintenance of the old city.

[5] Alternatively the money could be directed to long term schemes AIMED [ we/protect the city from the risk of flood ]. >> .. long term schemes aimedat protecting the city from the risk of flood. >> .. long term schemes aimedto protect the city from the risk of flood.

COMMON ERROR: *...long term schemes aimedto protecting the city from the risk of flood.

NOTE: here we see that the V aim allows two different complement structures. On the one hand, it has the special property of allowing an infinitival clause (Tom aimed to achieve a better result); on the other hand, it can be followed by the P at and any structure compatible with this, meaning either an NP (Tom aimed at a better result) OR a gerund clause (Tom aimed at achieving a better result). With a V like enjoy, which does not have the special property of selecting an infinitive complement clause (*Tom enjoyed to listen to the concert)

but which is transitive (Tom enjoyed the concert), the only possibility of linking a clausal formulation is to use a gerund clause in place of the NP/Object: Tom enjoyed listening to the concert. Similarly, with the V object, which again does not have the special property of selecting an infinitive complement clause (*Tom objected to listen to the concerton headphones) but which allows a PP complement introduced by the P to (Tom objected to the use of headphones), there is the possibility of using this P as a way of linking clausal material, as long as this is formulated as a gerund clause: Tom objected to listening to the concerton headphones. Here the gerund clause takes the place of the normal NP complement of the P.

[6] But there is a DANGER [ a charge of this type/make much difference to the overall numbers of visitors in the long run - Negative ]. >> there is a dangerof a charge of this type not making much difference to the overall numbers of visitors in the long run. >> there is a dangerthat a charge of this type will not make much difference to the overall numbers of visitors in the long run.

NOTE: the N danger does not normally allow an infinitive clause complement (*There is a danger to lose money); instead it allows a finite that clause (second solution above). Alternatively, the P of can be used to introduce a complement, which may be either an NP (danger of financial loss) or else a gerund clause (danger of losing money).

[7] In addition, it might END UP [ more and more people/see it as discriminatory ]. >> ..it might end up being seen by more and more people as discriminatory. >> ..it might end up with more and more people seeing it as discriminatory.

COMMON ERROR: *it might end up more and more people seeing it as discriminatory *it might end up to be seen by more and more people as discriminatory

NOTE: end up requires a gerund clause complement (an infinitive clause complement is not allowed. In this respect it is similar to the verb stop (*After that illness, he stopped to smoke vs. After that illness, he stopped smoking).

[9] Would it be just for day visitors or also for those who go to the (not inconsiderable) EXPENSE [ they/pay for a night in one of Venice’s hotels ]. >> ...thosewho go to the (not inconsiderable) expenseof paying for a night in one of Venice's hotels.

NOTE: an infinitive clause complement is not correct in this case. The N expense, unlike Ns such as aim or possibility or decision, lacks whatever semantic feature it is that allows these other Ns to select an infinitive clause complement (this semantic feature is arguably the fact that they all suggest or imply some future action or event). Instead, the P of can be used as a sort of ‘default’ way of introducing a complement of an N. The complement introduced in this way may be either an NP (the expense of a night in one of Venice’s hotels) or, if a clausal structure is required, a gerund clause (as in the solution above).

[10] Some people have even GONE AS FAR AS [ they/suggest it might be unconstitutional ]. >> Some people have even gone as far as suggesting it might be unconstitutional. >> Some people have even gone as far as to suggest it might be unconstitutional.

NOTE: both a gerund clause and an infinitive clause are possible following go as far as.. This probably has to do with the

[11] Others more prosaically CONSIDER [ it/be unworkable ]. >> Others more prosaically considerit to be unworkable. >> Others more prosaically considerit unworkable. >> Others more prosaically considerthat it is unworkable.

[12] In view of all this controversy, it is hardly surprising that the current Mayor of Venice has DECLARED [ he/be against the charge ]. >> ..the current Mayor of Venice has declaredhimself to be against the charge. >> ..the current Mayor of Venice has declaredthat he is against the charge.

COMMON ERROR: *..the current Mayor of Venice has declaredto be against the charge

[13] Fewer and fewer people are in fact convinced that it is WORTH [ we/bother with all the administrative complexity of such a charge ]. >> Fewer and fewer people are in fact convinced that it is worthbothering with all the administrative complexity of such a charge.

COMMON ERROR: *....it is worthto bother with all the administrative complexity of such a charge

B. In each of the items that follow you will find two text boxes. The one on the right contains the propositional content of a clause. The one on the left contains a predicate. The task consists in formulating these so as to create a single sentence (use the Present Tense or Present Perfect and add any extra words that are necessary to realise the structure you have chosen). [2 points total]

1.

>> Some reduction in the number of large ships steaming past St Mark’s is certain to be achieved. >> It is certain that some reduction in the number of large ships steaming past St Mark’s will be achieved.

2.

CERTAIN

some reduction in the number of large ships steaming past St Mark’s /be achieved

BOUND

there/be a showdown between the ‘No Big Ships’ Campaign and the cruise industry

>> There is bound to be a showdown between the ‘No Big Ships’ Campaign and the cruise industry

NOTE: no impersonal structure (*it is bound that...) possible.

3.

>> Passenger ships are unlikely to be eliminated entirely from the Venice Lagoon. >> It is unlikely that passenger ships will be eliminated entirely from the Venice Lagoon.

4.

>> The demonstrations earlier this year proved to be highly successful in mobilising public opinion. >> The demonstrations earlier this year prove to have been highly successful in mobilising public opinion.

NOTE: in this use the V prove means something similar to turn out or risultare/rivelarsi (i.e. ‘X has proved to be Y’ says that something which was not clear or foreseen - that entity x has property y - has now become clear, has emerged in the course of time, e.g. Opposition to the plan has proved to be much stronger than we expected). This is connected with more ‘normal’ uses of this verb (Recent excavations have proved that a proto-Christian basilica originally stood on the same site /It has been proved that a proto-Christian basilica originally stood on the same site), but distinct from them, both semantically and syntactically. Most obvious is the fact that in its ‘normal’ uses prove is a transitive verb (‘X proves Y’: Tom proved his innocence /Tom proved that he was innocent), while in the special use which we are considering here it is intransitive (‘X proves to be Y’, where Y is a predicate: This drug may prove to be allergenic.

UNLIKELY

passenger ships/be eliminated entirely from the Venice Lagoon

PROVE

the demonstrations earlier this year/be highly successful in mobilising public opinion

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