Acids - General Chemistry - Lecture Slides, Slides for Chemistry. B R Ambedkar National Institute of Technology
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Acids - General Chemistry - Lecture Slides, Slides for Chemistry. B R Ambedkar National Institute of Technology

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General Chemistry course covers the fundamentals of chemistry which includes: structure of atom/molecules, thermodynamics, stoichiometry, equilibrium and acid base chemistry. Keywords from these slides are: Acids, Bases,...
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Microsoft PowerPoint - Acids [Compatibility Mode]

Acids Acids: produce H+ ions

Example:

• Taste sour • Can burn • Turn litmus paper red

Naming Acids:

1

“hydro-” + Nonmetal element root + “-ic” acid Example: Hydrochloric acid

HCl (g) H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)  OH2

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Bases Bases: donate OH- ions

Example:

• Taste bitter • Feel soapy • Turn litmus paper blue • Hydroxide ions with group 1A or 2A metals

2

NaOH (s) Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq)  OH2

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Acids & Bases • Bronsted-Lowry Acids: donate a proton HCl + H2O  H3O+ + Cl-

• Bronsted-Lowry Bases: accept a proton NH3 + H2O  NH4+ + OH-

Conjugate acid-base pairs: one loses a proton, other gains a proton

3

A- is the conjugate base of HA BH+ is the conjugate acid of B

HA + B + A- BH+ H+ donor H+ donor H+

acceptor H+

acceptor

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Acids & Bases

4

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Strengths of Acids & Bases Strong acids & strong bases:

– dissociate completely in water – only forward reaction

Weak acids & weak bases: – Dissociate slightly in water – Both forward and reverse reactions

5

H2O + + NH3 NH4+ OH-

Reaction will favor side with weaker acid and weaker base

Water is a weaker acid than NH4+

acid acid base base

NH3 is a weaker base than OH-

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Strengths of Acids & Bases

6

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Dissociation Constants • Equilibrium constants for weak acids and bases

7

    HA

AOH3 

aK

H2O (l) + + HA (aq) H3O+ (aq) A- (aq)

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Ionization of Water

Water is amphoteric

8

H2O (l) + H3O+ (aq) OH- (aq) 2

In pure water:

Dissociation constant for water?

Kw =[H3O+] [OH-] =1.0 x 10-14 M

[H3O+] = [OH-]= 1.0 x 10-7 M

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Ionization of Water Calculate the concentration of hydroxide ions in coffee,

an aqueous solution containing 1.0 x 10-5 M H3O+ ions

9

Calculate the concentration of hydroxide ions in milk, which contains 5.0 x 10-7 M H3O+ ions

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The pH Scale

Scale from 0 to 14

• Acidic • Neutral • Basic

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pH < 7 [H3O+] > 1.0 x 10-7 M

pH = 7 [H3O+] = 1.0 x 10-7 M

pH > 7 [H3O+] < 1.0 x 10-7 M

pH = -log[H3O+] Milk: [H3O+] = 5.0 x 10-7 M

pH of milk = -log[H3O+] = -log[ 5.0 x 10-7 M ]

= 6.3

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The pH Scale

11

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Practice problem?

Calculate the pH of a solution that has…

• [H3O+] = 1.0 x 10-8 M

• [OH-] = 4.0 x 10-2 M

12

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