Amniotes - Vertebrate Anatomy - Quiz, Exercises for Anatomy. AMET University
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Amniotes - Vertebrate Anatomy - Quiz, Exercises for Anatomy. AMET University

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This is a class quiz for Vertebrate Anatomy. Key points of this quiz are: Amniotes, Vertebrate Anatomy, Totally Independent, Important Adaptations, Lots of Available Resources, Amniote Adaptations, Terrestrial Life, Life...
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Vertebrate Anatomy Notes

Vertebrate Anatomy Amniotes What are Amniotes?  _______________________________________________

 The vertebrates that are NOT fish • ____________________________ • ____________________________ • ____________________________ • ____________________________

 Amniotes  The tetrapods that are TOTALLY independent from __________________________ living

(need water only to _________________________)  Have important adaptations for __________________________________ life  Include all tetrapods EXCEPT amphibians

• __________________________________ • __________________________________ • __________________________________

Why Move to Land?  Fewer _______________________________ (at least at the start)  Lots of available resources

 _____________________________  ______________________________

 Less _____________________________________ for resources (at least at the start) Amniote Adaptations for Terrestrial Life  _______________________________________________

 Allows life cycle to be completed on _____________________________________  Shell retains WATER and can be laid in a dry place without dessicating (drying out)  Most mammals have dispensed with the shell, but retain other key features of the amniote egg.

• The extraembryonic ____________________________________________ • It is from these membranes that the _________________________________ is derived

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Specialized Membranes of the Amniotic Egg Extraembryonic membranes – develop from tissue that grows out from the embryo but is NOT part of

the embryo’s body  ________________________________________________

• Fluid filled sac • Protects embryo from ______________________________________ • "_________________________________________"

 _________________________ sac • _______________________ source

 _____________________________

• _________________________ sac

 __________________________________ • Responsible (with the allantois) for _________________________________

Amniotic Egg Diagram Amniotic Egg Shell  Composed of ________________________________  __________________________________, but ________________________________

 ______________________________ cannot leave the egg, BUT  ______________________________ (CO2 and O2) can move in and out of the egg.

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Fertilization in Amniotes  For ALL amniotes, fertilization MUST be ____________________________________

 If you’re going to have an egg protected with a hard shell, you’d better get sperm to that egg before that hard shell gets laid down around it.

 Hence, sperm must get to egg in the female’s _________________________________________ well before the shell is made.

Reproductive Tract of a Female Amniote

Other Adaptations for Life on Land found in Amniotes  _________________________________ of the _______________________________________

 Epidermal scales (keratinized skin) vs. dermal scales (in fish, made of bone) • Allow for more elaborate skin related structures like ___________________________,

______________________________, _______________________________, etc. • Also ultimately leads to ____________________________________in higher vertebrates

 ____________________________________________

 The regulation of __________________________________________________

 ______________________________ • ______________________________ blooded • Body temperature is the ______________________ as ___________________________ • Only way to control body temperature is to change ___________________________,

body position, etc. • PROS: doesn’t require much ________________________________________ • CONS: doesn’t allow for much _________________________________, especially in

cooltemps Examples of Ectotherms: ________________________________________________________

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 _____________________________________

• ______________________________________ blooded

• Body temperature is relatively ___________________________ regardless of environment

• Ways to control body temperature involve • ____________________________________ – fur, feathers, etc. • _________________________________ – body temp is maintained from heat

generated by the body’s own chemical reactions • __________________________________ • ___________________________________

• PROS: • Allows for a high degree of __________________________________ and

complex behaviors • Activity is not so dependent on environmental temperature

• CONS: • Requires ________________________ of _______________________________ • Animals must be seeking out

_____________________________________________ almost constantly.

Examples of Endotherms: ________________________________________________  Increase in ____________________________________ efficiency (movement)

 Limbs are placed _______________________________ the body in the higher amniotes (birds and mammals)

 Weight is supported by _________________________________ as opposed to muscle  Increased ______________________________ efficiency

 Lighter _______________________________  Improved _____________________________

 Increased _______________________________ efficiency

 ______________________________ improved • Somewhat in _____________________________ • LOTS improved in _________________________ and __________________________

 Move to _____________________________ chambered heart in birds and mammals.  More efficient at moving oxygen into and through the body – therefore more energy available for

activities Result of Amniote "Improvements"  Increased ecological ___________________________________  Increased ________________________________ levels

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