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Part 1: Animal Classification
1. Write a list of the names of the nine major animal phyla that we will be studying in this course (refer to your syllabus). Then, write the name of each of the following animal species (common name and scientific name in parentheses) next to the name of the phylum in which it belongs.
earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris), honeybee (Apis mellifera), pigeon (Columba livia), sponge (Sycon), ochre sea star (Pisaster ochraceus), frilled anemone (Metridium senile), human liver fluke (Clonorchis sinensis), California mussel (Mytilus californianus), intestinal roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides).
2. Write out the full taxonomic classification for yourself showing all major taxonomic categories (D, K, P, C, O, F, G, S). (Note: humans are classified in the Family Hominidae).
3. Draw a cladogram that shows the most likely evolutionary relationships among the following animals:
sponge, squid, tiger, jellyfish, shark
(Hint: start by determining which animal represents the “outgroup” – the one most distantly related to all the others. Refer to pages 64-65 in your lab manual.)
What characteristics did you use to group these animals?
4. Draw a cladogram for the following animals: shark, human, tiger, lizard, gorilla
Which animal represents the outgroup in this cladogram? What characteristics did you use to group these animals?
Part 2: Sponges (Phylum Porifera)
Station 1: Various sponges and sponge skeletons 1. a. What level of body organization and type of body symmetry characterizes the sponges?
b. What are two other chief characteristics of sponges that can be observed with the naked eye?
Station 2: Microscopic observation of Sycon (= Grantia) 2. What is a choanocyte, and what is its function?
3. Draw a diagram of the water flow system of a syconoid sponge. Use arrows to show the direction of water flow and label the following structures:
incurrent canal, radial canal, dermal ostium, osculum, spongocoel, choanocytes
Station 3: Lab manual 4. Explain briefly how a leuconoid canal system differs from a syconoid canal system. What structures in a leuconoid system perform the functions of the radial canals in a syconoid system?
Station 4: Microscopic observations of spicules and spongin 5. What are spicules and what materials can they be formed of? What is spongin?