What are the four causes, or components, of delay in a packet switched network? What can be done to reduce each of these components?

I am doing Research work in Networking delays. Could someone help me with the delay in packet switched networks and how they can be minimized?
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A network that enables an email being broken into small packets of web data which have been sent separately with a source towards destination. The packets may travel different paths and go to different times, with the destination sites reassembling them in to the original message. ...
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A packet switched network is when individual packets each follow their very own paths from the network from a single endpoint to another.
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"The delay components are Processing, queuing, transmission, and propagation. Processing delay can be reduced by faster CPUs, queuing and transmission delay by faster links, and propagation delay only by moving content closer to its user. <a href=; Computer Networks</a>"
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