"a cohort study is a TYPE of longitudinal study, like a sub category [i.e. an apple is a type of fruit] i kinda forgot what other types of longitudinal studies there, im sure you could google it, but cohort studies are by far the most common kids of studies. prospective means that they have planned this study and they plan to observe this cohort over the next X period of time, like over the next few years. in comparison, there are also retrospective studies which would involve looking up things like medical records of a cohort of things that already happened to the subjects. for example, say u wanna research birth complications on labor and delivery units at a hospital - a prospective study means you would study the outcome of women and their babies delivering at this hospital say over the next 5 years, a retrospective would be that you just pull up all the medical records of the women and babies from the last 5 years. hope that helps?"
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