"Marketing communication is defined as transmission of information from the marketer to the consumer through a media. The basic objective behind marketing communication is to inform a consumer (or a prospect) and to make him aware about the product/service offering, and the mix, build a favorable attitude towards the offering, and to encourage a purchase. The credibility of the source (marketer/spokesperson) affects the way that the target audience decodes the message. When the spokesperson holds some kind of expert power (he is an expert in his field), or has some charisma (he possesses charismatic power), or holds legitimacy of position (holds legitimate power), the influence that he is able to generate is much higher. He is able to convey his message and convince the consumer much easily. The receiver (consumer) regards a source to be credible when he feels that the source provides unbiased information. In other words, when the source is credible, honest, respected and held in esteem, the probability of the message being believed and assimilated by the target audience is much higher; the opposite hold good too, i.e. in case when the credibility is low, the assimilation of the message and the belief in the message is low. Credibility is important for both formal and informal sources. The issue of credibility assumes importance in formal sources as the consumer rightly understands that the major objective of the source (marketer) is to encourage a sale and earn profit. The reputation and expertise of the source assumes importance. The credibility of the message is cumulative of the reputation of the sender (the marketer and his organization), the spokesperson (the celebrity, expert, company representative, or anyone who acts as an endorser), and the dealer/retailer who stocks the merchandise and sells it. Other factors that affect the credibility of the message is the medium through which it is expressed, as well as the spokesperson. The consumer's own experience with the product or the retailer also affects the credibility of the message. The consumer basis his judgment on factors like i) the reputation of the company and its past performance; ii) the quality of its product/service offerings based on selfexperience, hearsay, word-of-mouth; iii) the other lines of business that they carry; and iv) their corporate social responsibility. Once a company gets reputed with a product line, it tries to transcend the benefits of the reputed brand to the other product/service lines that it intends to offer. Thus, it comes up with the concept of family branding, so as to get a ready acceptance from the consumers. Once a family brand is popular and successful, the marketer focuses on institutional advertising, which is aimed at creating and enhancing the company image rather than a specific product/service brand. On the other hand, in case of informal sources, people rely on their family, friends, peers and colleagues for information and advice. They regard such sources to be credible. People take advice from informal sources as they feel that such sources have nothing to gain and have no hidden agenda or ulterior motive. They also feel that family and friends would speak of actual experience and give the right feedback abou the product that they own. Opinion leaders also have a big role to play, and they take interest in providing information to those who approach them. But they need to be careful, because in case they provide wrong information and advice, they may lose their position/status as opinion leaders in the eyes of the public. However, there are cases where the intentions of informal sources may not be what they seem to be, and the situation may backfire; for example, there is evidence to prove that sometimes consumers try to reduce their post-purchase cognitive dissonance by convincing others to buy the same product/service offering which they have purchased. Thus, in spite of the fact that informal sources have nothing to gain and there is no hidden agenda (to encourage a sale and earn profit), such sources may not always prove to be totally credible. The credibility of the source begins to fade away after a period of time; research has indicated that generally credibility tends to diminish after a period of six weeks. This has been termed as the “sleeper effect’; the consumers begin to loose interest and forget the message, its source and the spokesperson. The source begins to lose his credibility. This can happen because of monotony, boredom and general loss of interest. Here, the marketer has to intervene, and reintroduce the message so as to elicit a recall. He could go for substantive variation or for cosmetic variation so as to generate interest, recall and credibility. Source: http://in.docsity.com/en-docs/Consumer_Needs_and_Involvment_-_Consumer_Behavior_-_Solved_Quiz_"
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"Exactly how credible will vary types of facts and information in folks’azines opinions? As soon as putting PR plans unitedly, it can be profitable to comprehend precisely how well distinct sources of information are generally highly regarded and concentrate on the nearly all reliable for the most powerful benefits. The survey benefits, down below, are the ideal help guide to your trustworthiness of various information and facts places, and you also would likely reap the benefits of preserving the outcomes like a guide while preparation potential connection plans.. Analysis licenced aside intercontinental Public realtions firm, Edelman, inside Goal '06, asked answering judgment leaders, “Exactly how reputable sometimes you may feel all of the using solutions is good for specifics of a corporation?” The particular tendencies with the US polling were being: Content articles running a business journals sixty six% Friends and family 58% Friends sixty% Standard as well as sector analyst reviews 42 tommers skrrrm% Content articles throughout newsweeklies fifty two% Stereo announcement insurance 48% Articles in newspaper publishers 44% The online world on the whole ixl% Telly information protection thirty-eight% Facts conveyed by Business minds, CFOs 29% Websites 19% Organization magazines such as Bundle of money along with Forbes would be the almost all reliable method of obtaining details. The web is actually soaring in reliability possesses currently exceeded the reliability of tv set news (at the mercy of record deviation) and can be credible when compared with stereo information."
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