I don't know the most effective. Help essential.
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"Not clear what you are asking. What system? there are many different kinds of gates, AND, NAND, OR, NOR, NOT, XOR, plus latches of many kinds and buffers of many kinds."
Circuits can be designed to act in response to player activation, or to operate autonomously -- either on a loop, or in response to non-player activity such as mob movement, item drops, plant growth, etc.