List and briefly explain the functions that are required for multicasting.

What are the major multicasting functions?

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"(1) A convention is needed for identifying a multicast address. (2) Each node (router or source participating in the routing algorithm) must translate between an IP multicast address and a list of networks that contain members of this group. This information allows the node to construct a shortest-path spanning tree to all of the networks containing group members. (3) A router must translate between an IP multicast address and a network multicast address in order to deliver a multicast IP datagram on the destination network. (4) Although some multicast addresses may be assigned permanently, the more usual case is that multicast addresses are generated dynamically and that individual hosts may join and leave multicast groups dynamically. Thus, a mechanism is needed by which an individual host informs routers attached to the same network as itself of its inclusion in and exclusion from a multicast group. (5) Routers must exchange two sorts of information. First, routers need to know which networks include members of a given multicast group. Second, routers need sufficient information to calculate the shortest path to each network containing group members. These requirements imply the need for a multicast routing protocol. (6) A routing algorithm is needed to calculate shortest paths to all group members. (7) Each router must determine multicast routing paths on the basis of both source and destination addresses."

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