"I've never heard of any meaningful relations between the two. They were enemies, of course, with North Korea being a proxy of the Soviets. If the South Korean government wanted to talk to the Soviets (say about helping to broker people on the Korean peninsula), they would probably have gone through the US. There is some information in the wikipedia on this topic, albeit at the tail end of the Cold War: In the 1980s, South Korean President Roh Tae Woo's Nordpolitik and Mikhail Gorbachev's ""New Thinking"" were both attempts to reverse their nations' recent histories. Gorbachev had signaled Soviet interest in improving relations with all countries in the Asia-Pacific region, including South Korea, as explained in his July 1986 Vladivostok and August 1988 Krasnoyarsk speeches. In initiating Nordpolitik, Roh's confidential foreign policy adviser was rumored to have visited Moscow to consult with Soviet policymakers. Kim Young Sam visited Moscow from June 2 to June 10, 1989, as the Kremlin announced that it would allow some 300,000 Soviet-Koreans who had been on the Soviet island of Sahkalin since the end of World War II to return permanently to South Korea. Moscow even arranged Kim's meeting with the North Korean ambassador to the Soviet Union. In June 1990, Roh held his first summit with President Gorbachev in San Francisco. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, South Korea and Russia established diplomatic ties in 1991. Russian president Vladimir Putin visited Seoul in February 2001, while South Korean president Roh Moo-hyun visited Moscow in September 2004. South Korea is currently selecting its first astronaut, scheduled to board a Soyuz flight to the International Space Station in April 2008[dated info]. South Korea plans the first domestic launch of a satellite in 2008, with Russian assistance. The aerospace institute is spending about 20 billion on on the astronaut project, including Russian fees. Since the 1990s there has been greater trade and cooperation between the two nations. The total trade volume between South Korea and Russia in 2003 was 4.2 billion US dollars."
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