What are stimulants, and what are their effects?

Hello to everybody, please explain stimulants, and their effects in Psychology.
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"Stimulants—caffeine, nicotine, the amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy—excite neural activity and speed up body functions. All are highly addictive. Nicotine’s effects make smoking a difficult habit to kick, but the percentage of Americans who smoke is nevertheless decreasing. Continued use of methamphetamine may permanently reduce dopamine production. Cocaine gives users a 15- to 30-minute high, followed by a crash. Its risks include cardiovascular stress and suspiciousness. Ecstasy is a combined stimulant and mild hallucinogen that produces a euphoric high and feelings of intimacy. Its users risk immune system suppression, permanent damage to mood and memory, and (if taken during physical activity) dehydration and escalating body temperatures."
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Stimulating elements (also called psychostimulants) usually are psychoactive medicines which in turn encourage short-lived improvements in both mind or perhaps physical functionality or maybe the two. Degrees of these types of results can include improved alertness, watchfulness, and also travel, and others. Because of their results typically having an "in place" choice for many years, stimulating elements may also be sometimes known as "uppers". Depressants or perhaps "downers", which in turn lessen mental in addition to/as well as actual purpose, have been in plain line in order to stimuli and therefore are thought to be their particular useful opposites. Stimulants tend to be widespread throughout the world while pharmaceutical drug treatments so that as illegitimate chemicals connected with pastime work with as well as mistreatment.
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