Arab World-Developing Enterpreneurship-Lecture Slides, Slides for Entrepreneurship Development. Shri Jagdishprasad Jhabarmal Tibrewala University
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aabid7 August 2012

Arab World-Developing Enterpreneurship-Lecture Slides, Slides for Entrepreneurship Development. Shri Jagdishprasad Jhabarmal Tibrewala University

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Prof. Shriranga Shreeyash delivered this lecture for Developing Entrepreneurship course at Shri Jagdishprasad Jhabarmal Tibrewala University. Its main points are: Arab, World, Financial, Governance, Economic, Development...
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Financial Times, September 9, 2003

Arab world ‘held back by poor governance’ The linking of economic prosperity to political

reforms will strike a particularly sensitive chord in the Arab world. Many regimes pride themselves on being good students of multilateral institutions and justify their absolute power on the grounds that they are best suited to provide economic and social development.

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William Easterly, former Senior Advisor The World Bank

“ Many times over the last fifty years, we economists thought that we had found the right answer to economic growth. It started with foreign aid to fill the gap between “necessary” investment and saving….. Supplementing this idea was the notion that education was a form of accumulating “human machinery” that would bring growth. Next, concerned about how “excess” population might overwhelm the productive capacity of the economy, we promoted population control. Then, we realized government policies hindered growth, we promoted official loans to induce countries to policy reforms. Finally, when countries had trouble repaying their loans they incurred to do policy reforms, we offered debt forgiveness.

None of these elixirs has worked as promised…”

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All these approaches looked at poverty

in a top-down way (bird’s eye view dealing with the lives of worms) as if the poor is a target, not a resource as if wealth (better life) is something to be provided to the poor overlooking how economies actually evolved historically in developed countries. (It involved empowerment from below) overlooking the fact that engaging poor people in commerce contributes to strengthening of democracies (which can then lead to better societies and economies)

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Instead of seeing 2b mouths to feed,

we need to think what we can do to make those

2b brains to think for themselves

4b eyes and ears to keep watch on governments

4b hands and legs to move things

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The question

How can we adopt “the worm’s eye-view”?

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Connectivity is productivity

ITU research:

Adam Smith: Specialization Productivity

Specialization needs dependability

Dependability needs connectivity

Connectivity Dependability Specialization Productivity

Connectivity Productivity docsity.com

Telecommunications in Bangladesh as of 1993

Only 2 phones per 1,000 people Virtually none in rural areas, leaving 100 million unserved $500 connection fee — and 5-10 years waiting period Most phones were analog and did not work

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A business opportunity

The government is not building the necessary infrastructures.

A part of the increased productivity could be channeled to pay for the service. A business

needs to be (and can be)

created

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Myths, facts and solutions

Myths Facts Solutions Lacking buying- power, the poor provide no market.

Production tools create buying power.

Value (if higher than costs) can get people ahead.

Initial individual buying power may be too low

Shared-access reduces costs for everyone.

Community is the customer.

Meet primary needs first

A rise in income helps people meet primary needs.

Ownership empowers.

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The real problem : A lack of other infrastructures

Not Enough Records for credit checks.

Roads for Repairman.

Contact points for customer service.

Banks to collect bills.

Schools for children of workers.

Grameen Bank 1138 Branches.

12,801 employees. 2.3 mill. borrowers. 39,172 villages covered. $33 mill. lent monthly. 94% borrowers female.

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At this point, I learned to adopt the worm’s eye view from Grameen Bank

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Money

Milk

MoneyMoney docsity.com

Money

Service

MoneyMoney docsity.com

Mobilizing resources: 1993 - 1999

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Current coverage of GrameenPhone

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Summary results of GrameenPhone Approaching $300 million in investment

The expected 2003 net income (earnings after tax) is $60 million

Largest telephone company in Bangladesh with 1,000,000 urban subscribers

33,000 villages served, giving telephone access to 50 million people in rural areas

Revenues $100/month per village phone

Profit of $2/day/phone, more than twice the per capita income

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Growth of Village Phones

0

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

Dec- 97

Jun- 98

Dec- 98

Jun- 99

Dec- 99

Jun- 00

Dec- 00

Jun- 01

Dec- 01

Jun- 02

Dec- 02

3- Mar

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Increasing Incomes / Improving welfare

Increasing incomes – generating profits for local entrepreneurs – farmers can get market information and

better prices for crops – deals are being made over the phone

Improving welfare – ability to call a doctor – can connect with urban or overseas relatives – substitutes for costly trip into capital city

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Design makes a difference

Prior perceptions The poor is seen as the recipients Too expensive to provide services to the poor Enhancing skills is seen as a separate expensive project

Post implementation Poor people is a resource

Reduced cost of the service

Skills of the poor enhanced

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