Assignment 1, Exercises for Computer Engineering and Programming. Lancaster University
Talha.Farid
Talha.Farid18 June 2015

Assignment 1, Exercises for Computer Engineering and Programming. Lancaster University

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Assignment 1

CAT5

Category 5 refers to a shielded or unshielded twisted pair cable terminated by RJ-45 connector. It has balanced lines of four twisted pairs in a single cable jacket, which aid the preservation of a high signal-to-noise ratio. Within the cable there are 3 twists per inch of each twisted pair of 24 gauge copper wires.

A CAT 5 install is most frequent in a 100 Mbit/s network, for example with 100BASE-TX Ethernet. It is commonly used for other structured cabling, such as Basic Voice Services, Token Ring and ATM signals.

CAT5e

The CAT-5e Cable is unshielded wire containing four pairs of 24-gauge twisted copper pairs, terminating in an RJ-45 jack. CAT5e cables are easily the most common and popular Ethernet cables being used.

There are two types of CAT5e cables. One of them is a cross-over cable that is used to connect two devices directly to each other, e.g. a PC directly to another PC or a Hub to another Hub.

CAT5e cables also support the faster speeds of 1000Mbit (or Gigabit) connections.

CAT6

CAT 6 cables consist of four unshielded twisted pair (UTP) of copper wire terminated by RJ45 connectors.

CAT 6 is backward compatible with the CAT3, CAT5 and CAT5e cable standards, and as with CAT5and CAT5e cabling. Category 6 cable uses thicker-gauge wire, increased shielding, and more pair twists per inch to reduce signal noise and interference.

CAT6 wire was originally designed to support gigabit Ethernet. It is similar to CAT5 wire, but contains a physical separator between the 4 pairs to further reduce electromagnetic interference.

Reduced cross talk, or signal leakage, between twisted pairs.

The tighter specifications guarantee that 100-meter runs of Category 6 are capable of 1000 Mbit/s transfer speeds.

DATA AND COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS

UN twisted pair cable (UTP)

Unshielded twisted pair, a popular type of cable that consists of two unshielded wires the standard connector for unshielded twisted pair cabling is an RJ-45 connector twisted around each other.

A typical subset of these colors (white/blue, blue/white, white/orange, orange/white) shows up in most UTP cables.

The cables are typically made with copper wires measured at 22 or 24 American Wire Gauge (AWG),with the colored insulation typically made from an insulator such as polyethylene or FEP and the total package covered in a polyethylene jacket.

Due to its low cost, UTP cabling is used extensively for local-area networks (LANs) and telephone connections. It is used not only for networking but also for the traditional telephone (UTP- Cat 1).

Shielded twisted pair cable (STP)

STP is similar to UTP but with each pair covered by an additional copper braid jacket or foil wrapping. This shielding helps protect the signals on the cables from external interference.

STP is more expensive than UTP but has the benefit of being able to support higher transmission rates over longer distances.

To gain the full benefit of the shielding, STP cables are terminated with special shielded STP data connectors. If the cable is improperly grounded, the shield may act like an antenna and pick up unwanted signals.

It has an impedance of 150 ohms, has a maximum length of 90 meters, and is used primarily in networking environments with a high amount of EMI due to motors, air conditioners, power lines, or other noisy electrical components.

However, there are two common variations of STP:

1) STP cable shields the entire bundle of wires with foil eliminating virtually all interference.

2) STP cable shields the entire bundle of wires as well as the individual wire pairs with foil eliminating all interference.

DATA AND COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS

RJ5 Connector

Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) VS Shielded twisted pair(STP)

UTP STP

RJ45 is used as terminal connector RJ45 is used as terminal connector

Contain less amount of materials Contains greater amount of materials

Cheap installation Expensive installation

Less noise resistance Greater noise resistance

Relies on balancing and filtering techniques

It has grounding issues

The cable is cheap, lightweight, thin and flexible, as well as versatile, reliable and inexpensive.

Cable is expensive and combined with improperly shielded connectors, the foil shield itself is damaged, overall signal quality will be degraded

Slower at transmitting of data faster at transmitting of data

Straight cable VS cross cable

Straight cable Cross cable

Computer to hub, switch, router, or wall

Computer to Computer and Network device to network device

used for connecting unlike devices used for connecting like devices

have pairs of wires that crisscross have pairs of wires that are not crisscross

DATA AND COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS

Straight –through cable

Cross over cable

DATA AND COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS

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