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OBJECTIVES Understand the 3 main anatomic concepts of disease---Degenerative, Inflammatory, Neoplastic
Understand the concepts of cellular growth adaptations---Hyperplasia, Hypertrophy, Atrophy, Metaplasia
Understand the factors of cell injury and death---O2, Physical, Chemical, Infection, Immunologic, Genetic, Nutritional
OBJECTIVES Understand the pathologic mechanisms at the
SUB-cellular level---ATP, Mitochondria, Ca++, Free Radicals, Membranes
Understand and differentiate the concepts of APOPTOSIS and NECROSIS
Understand SUB-cellular responses to injury--- Lysosomes, Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Mitochondria, Cytoskeleton
OBJECTIVES Identify common INTRA-cellular
accumulations---Fat, Hyaline, CA++, Proteins, Glycogen, Pigments
Understand aging and differentiate the concepts of preprogrammed death versus wear and tear.
PATHOLOGY •GENERAL •SYSTEMIC
PATHOLOGY • ETIOLOGY (“Cause”) • PATHOGENESIS (“Insidious
development”) • MORPHOLOGY (ABNORMAL
ANATOMY) • CLINICAL EXPRESSION
•Risk Factors Docsity.com
PATHOGENESIS “sequence of events from the initial stimulus to the ultimate expression of the disease”
MORPHOLOGY • Abnormal Anatomy
–Gross –Microscopic –Radiologic –Molecular
• Ironically, even though “clinical expression” is not often present in subclinical diseases, it is the “pathos” of pathology.
Most long term students of pathology, like myself, will strongly agree that the very best way for most minds to remember, or identify, or understand a disease is to associate it with
a morphologic IMAGE. This can be gross, electron microscopic, light microscopic, radiologic, or molecular.
In MOST cases it is at the LIGHT MICROSCOPIC LEVEL.
The Father of Modern Pathology
FUNCTIONAL DEFINITION OF DISEASE
CELL DEATH • APOPTOSIS (“normal” death) • NECROSIS (“premature” or
“untimely” death due to “causes”
The –plasia brothers • HYPER- • HYPO- (A-) • NORMO-
• DYS- • ANA- • “Frank” ANA-
HYPO-TROPHY? DE-CREASE IN SIZE OF CELLS?
A-TROPHY? DE-CREASE IN SIZE OF CELLS? YES
SHRINKAGE IN CELL SIZE DUE TO LOSS OF CELL
ATROPHY • DECREASED WORKLOAD • DENERVATION • DECREASED BLOOD FLOW • DECREASED NUTRITION • AGING (involution) • PRESSURE
METAPLASIA • A SUBSTITUTION of one NORMAL CELL
or TISSUE type, for ANOTHER – COLUMNAR SQUAMOUS (Cervix) – SQUAMOUS COLUMNAR (Glandular)
(Stomach) – FIBROUS BONE
CELL DEATH • APOPTOSIS vs. NECROSIS • What is DEATH? (What is LIFE?)
–DEATH is IRREVERSIBLE
So the question is….
…NOT what is life or death, but what is REVERSIBLE or IRREVERSIBLE injury
• REDUCED oxidative phosphorylation
• ATP depletion • Cellular “SWELLING”
• MITOCHONDRIAL IRREVERSIBILITY
• IRREVERSIBLE MEMBRANE DEFECTS
• LYSOSOMAL DIGESTION Docsity.com
REVERSIBLE = INJURY
IRREVERSIBLE = DEATH
SOME INJURIES CAN LEAD TO DEATH IF PROLONGED
and/or SEVERE enough Docsity.com