Cell Adaptations - Pathology - Lecture Slides, Slides for Pathology. Alagappa University
deepaka
deepaka21 December 2012

Cell Adaptations - Pathology - Lecture Slides, Slides for Pathology. Alagappa University

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Cell Adaptations, Cell Injury, Cell Death, Concepts of Disease, Concepts of Cellular Growth, Factors of Cell Injury, Free Radicals, Concepts of Apoptosis, Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum. A lecture from Pathology course to ...
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OBJECTIVES

CELL ADAPTATIONS

CELL INJURY

CELL DEATH

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OBJECTIVES Understand the 3 main anatomic concepts of disease---Degenerative, Inflammatory, Neoplastic

Understand the concepts of cellular growth adaptations---Hyperplasia, Hypertrophy, Atrophy, Metaplasia

Understand the factors of cell injury and death---O2, Physical, Chemical, Infection, Immunologic, Genetic, Nutritional

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OBJECTIVES Understand the pathologic mechanisms at the

SUB-cellular level---ATP, Mitochondria, Ca++, Free Radicals, Membranes

Understand and differentiate the concepts of APOPTOSIS and NECROSIS

Understand SUB-cellular responses to injury--- Lysosomes, Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Mitochondria, Cytoskeleton

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OBJECTIVES Identify common INTRA-cellular

accumulations---Fat, Hyaline, CA++, Proteins, Glycogen, Pigments

Understand aging and differentiate the concepts of preprogrammed death versus wear and tear.

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PATHOLOGY

Pathos (suffering)

Logos

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PATHOLOGY GENERAL SYSTEMIC

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PATHOLOGY ETIOLOGY (“Cause”) PATHOGENESIS (“Insidious

development”) MORPHOLOGY (ABNORMAL

ANATOMY) CLINICAL EXPRESSION

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ETIOLOGY Cause

vs.

Risk Factors Docsity.com

PATHOGENESIS “sequence of events from the initial stimulus to the ultimate expression of the disease”

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MORPHOLOGY Abnormal Anatomy

Gross Microscopic Radiologic Molecular

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CLINICAL EXPRESSION

Ironically, even though “clinical expression” is not often present in subclinical diseases, it is the “pathos” of pathology.

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Most long term students of pathology, like myself, will strongly agree that the very best way for most minds to remember, or identify, or understand a disease is to associate it with

a morphologic IMAGE. This can be gross, electron microscopic, light microscopic, radiologic, or molecular.

In MOST cases it is at the LIGHT MICROSCOPIC LEVEL.

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CLINICAL/FUNCTIONAL

Rudolph Virchow

1821-1902

The Father of Modern Pathology

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FUNCTIONAL DEFINITION OF DISEASE

HOMEOSTASIS

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CELL DEATH APOPTOSIS (“normal” death) NECROSIS (“premature” or

“untimely” death due to “causes”

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The –plasia brothers • HYPER- HYPO- (A-) • NORMO-

META-

DYS- ANA- • “Frank” ANA-

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HYPO-TROPHY? DE-CREASE IN SIZE OF CELLS?

RARELY

USED

TERM Docsity.com

A-TROPHY? DE-CREASE IN SIZE OF CELLS? YES

SHRINKAGE IN CELL SIZE DUE TO LOSS OF CELL

SUBSTANCE Docsity.com

ATROPHY DECREASED WORKLOAD DENERVATION DECREASED BLOOD FLOW DECREASED NUTRITION AGING (involution) PRESSURE

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METAPLASIA A SUBSTITUTION of one NORMAL CELL

or TISSUE type, for ANOTHER COLUMNAR SQUAMOUS (Cervix) SQUAMOUS COLUMNAR (Glandular)

(Stomach) FIBROUS BONE

WHY?

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CELL DEATH APOPTOSIS vs. NECROSIS What is DEATH? (What is LIFE?)

DEATH is IRREVERSIBLE

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So the question is….

…NOT what is life or death, but what is REVERSIBLE or IRREVERSIBLE injury

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REVERSIBLE CHANGES

REDUCED oxidative phosphorylation

ATP depletion Cellular “SWELLING”

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IRREVERSIBLE CHANGES

MITOCHONDRIAL IRREVERSIBILITY

IRREVERSIBLE MEMBRANE DEFECTS

LYSOSOMAL DIGESTION Docsity.com

REVERSIBLE = INJURY

IRREVERSIBLE = DEATH

SOME INJURIES CAN LEAD TO DEATH IF PROLONGED

and/or SEVERE enough Docsity.com

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