Conflict and Peacemaking - Social Psychology - Lecture Slides, Slides for Social Psychology
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honda-civic10 September 2013

Conflict and Peacemaking - Social Psychology - Lecture Slides, Slides for Social Psychology

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Keywords in this lecture are: Conflict and Peacemaking, Conflict, Social Trap, Non-Zero-Sum Games, Social Dilemmas, Countertraps, Ignorance Traps, Investment Traps, Deterioration Traps, Collective Traps
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Conflict and Peacemaking

Social Psychology Conflict & Peacemaking

 Conflict: A perceived incompatibility of actions

or goals.

 Peace: A condition marked by low levels of

hostility and aggression and by mutually

beneficial relationships.

What creates conflict?

 How can peace be achieved?

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What Creates Conflicts?

Social Dilemmas

 Social Trap: A situation in which the conflicting

parties, by each rationally pursuing it’s own self-

interest, become caught in mutually destructive

behavior.

– Prisoner’s Dilemma

– Tragedy of the Commons

 Non-Zero-Sum Games: Games in which the

outcomes need not sum to zero. With

cooperation, both can win; with competition,

both can lose. docsity.com

What Creates Conflicts?

A Taxonomy of Traps

 Traps (sins of commission) occur when we take potentially harmful courses of action.

 Countertraps (sins of omission) arise when we avoid potentially beneficial behavior.

 Five types of traps which all have corresponding countertraps:

– Time delay traps

– Ignorance traps

– Investment traps

– Deterioration traps

– Collective traps docsity.com

What Creates Conflicts?

Time Delay Traps

Momentary gratification clashes with long term

consequences.

 Trap: We choose something pleasant at the

moment even though it is bad in the long run.

 Countertrap: We avoid things that are

unpleasant at the moment even though they are

better in the long run. docsity.com

What Creates Conflicts?

Ignorance Traps

 The negative consequences of a behavior are

not understood.

 Trap: We choose to do something pleasant at

the moment w/o knowing it is bad for us in the

long run.

 Countertrap: We avoid doing things which are

unpleasant at the moment because we do not

realize they are good for us in the long run. docsity.com

What Creates Conflicts?

Investment Traps

 Occur when prior expenditures of time, money,

or other resources lead people to make choices

they would not otherwise make.

 Trap: We choose to continue pursue something

we know is ―wrong‖ because we already

invested in it.

 Countertrap: We avoid starting a new thing we

realize is better because we have invested so

much in something else. docsity.com

What Creates Conflicts?

Deterioration Traps

 Occur when initially rewarding courses of action

gradually become less reinforcing or more

punishing.

 Trap: We continue to do something which was

good, but is now no longer good.

 Countertrap: We fail to begin doing something

which is now good, because it used to be bad. docsity.com

What Creates Conflicts?

Collective Traps

 The pursuit of individual self interest results in adverse consequences for the collective.

 Trap: We perform actions beneficial to our own interests even though they have negative consequences for the collective.

 Countertrap: We fail to do things which are difficult for us even though the consequences to the collective are negative.

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What Creates Conflicts?

Social Dilemmas

The Prisoner’s Dilemma

 Everyone wins if everyone

trusts.

 Because neither trusts the

other, the most common

outcome is both confessing.

 Set up by lawyers to get a

double confession.

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What Creates Conflicts?

Social Dilemmas

The Prisoner’s Dilemma

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What Creates Conflicts?

Social Dilemmas

How Much Would You Pay for a Dollar?

 Players auction for a dollar.

– No communication allowed between bidders.

– Bids are made in multiples of 5c

– The two highest bidders must both pay what

they bid, even though the dollar only goes to

the highest bidder.

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What Creates Conflicts?

Social Dilemmas

The Tragedy of the Commons

 Tragedy of the Commons: The ―commons‖ is any shared resource, including air, water, energy sources, and food supplies. The tragedy occurs when individuals consume more than their share, with the cost of their doing so dispersed among all, causing the ultimate collapse—the tragedy—of the commons.

 An individual does whatever is in their own best interest event though it makes the collective suffer.

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What Creates Conflicts?

Social Dilemmas

Resolving Social Dilemmas

 Regulation

 Small is beautiful

 Communication

 Changing the payoffs

 ―For that which is common to the greatest number has the least

care bestowed upon it.‖

 Aristotle

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What Creates Conflicts?

Competition

 Competition kindles conflict.

 Two groups of boys created who called

themselves the Eagles and the Rattlers

– Set up to like each other.

– Competition introduced

– Conflict resulted

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What Creates Conflicts?

Perceived Injustice

inputsYour

outcomesYour

inputsMy

outcomesMy

 Equity is achieved if I perceive that:

 However, very competent or worthy people

value their inputs more, thus making a balance

almost impossible.

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What Creates Conflicts?

Misperception

 White reviewed ten

wars from the last

century and found at

least one of the

following every time

– underestimating the

enemy’s strength

– overestimating the

leaders’ power

– rationalizing one’s own

motives

 Conflict is a perceived

incompatibility of actions or

goals.

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What Creates Conflicts?

Misperception

Mirror-Image Perceptions

Mirror-Image Perceptions: Reciprocal views of

each other often held by parties in conflict; for

example, each may view itself as moral and

peace-loving and the other as evil and

aggressive.

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When we get into arguments with people, the problem won’t be sorted until both parties feel that they have been treated fairly.

Grrrrr….. Grrrrr…..

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In order to make things fair, all parties have to:

 Understand

 Avoid making things worse

Work together

 Find a solution

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First we have to try to understand – by putting ourselves in the other person’s shoes.

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Each person must be allowed to say how

they feel – without being interrupted.

In order for it to work:

Each person must listen carefully to what

the other has to say.

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Everyone must make sure they don’t make the situation worse … so

NO: put downs revealing of secrets screaming or shouting fighting, kicking, pushing!

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Each person must be determined to work

together with the others.

This means:

Taking turns

Speaking quietly, but firmly

Active listening

Talking about how you feel, without

blaming anyone.

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