Constitution of INDIA, Thesis for Constitutional Law
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Constitution of INDIA, Thesis for Constitutional Law

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

[As on 31st July, 2018]

2018

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

MINISTRY OF LAW AND JUSTICE

LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED

Art., arts. for Article, articles.

Cl., cls. Clause, clauses.

C.O. Constitution Order.

Ins. Inserted.

P., pp. Page, pages.

Pt. Part.

Rep. Repealed.

Sec., ss. Section, sections.

Sch. Schedule.

Subs. Substituted.

w.e.f. with effect from.

3

PREFACE

The Constitution of India has been brought up-to-date by incorporating therein all the amendments

up-to and including the Constitution (One Hundred and First Amendment) Act, 2016.

The Constitution (One Hundredth Amendment) Act, 2015 containing details of acquired and

transferred territories between the governments of India and Bangladesh has been included in

Appendix V.

The Constitution applies to the State of Jammu and Kashmir with certain exceptions and

modifications as provide in article 370 and the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir)

Order, 1954. This Order has been included in Appendix I for facility of reference. Appendix II contains

re-statement of the exceptions and modifications.

New Delhi;Dr. G Narayana Raju,31stJuly, 2018. Secretary to the Government of India.

4

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

____________

CONTENTS

__________

PREAMBLE

PART I

THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY

ARTICLES

1. Name and territory of the Union.

2. Admission or establishment of new States.

2A. [Repealed.]

3. Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States.

4. Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth

Schedules and supplemental, incidental and consequential matters.

PART II

CITIZENSHIP

5. Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution.

6. Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan.

7. Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan.

8. Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside India.

9. Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to be citizens.

10. Continuance of the rights of citizenship.

11. Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.

PART III

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

General

12. Definition.

13. Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.

Right to Equality

14. Equality before law.

15. Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.

16. Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.

17. Abolition of Untouchability.

18. Abolition of titles.

Right to Freedom

19. Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.

20. Protection in respect of conviction for offences.

21. Protection of life and personal liberty.

5

ARTICLES

21A. Right to education.

22. Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.

Right against Exploitation

23. Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.

24. Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.

Right to Freedom of Religion

25. Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion.

26. Freedom to manage religious affairs.

27. Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion.

28. Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational

institutions.

Cultural and Educational Rights

29. Protection of interests of minorities.

30. Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.

31. [Repealed.]

Saving of Certain Laws

31A. Saving of Laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc.

31B. Validation of certain Acts and Regulations.

31C. Saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles.

31D. [Repealed.]

Right to Constitutional Remedies

32. Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part.

32A. [Repealed.]

33. Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in their application to Forces, etc.

34. Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while martial law is in force in any area.

35. Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part.

PART IV

DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY

36. Definition.

37. Application of the principles contained in this Part.

38. State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people.

39. Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State.

39A. Equal justice and free legal aid.

40. Organisation of village panchayats.

41. Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases.

42. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.

43. Living wage, etc., for workers.

43A. Participation of workers in management of industries.

43B. Promotion of co-operative societies.

6

ARTICLES

44. Uniform civil code for the citizens.

45. Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years.

46. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections.

47. Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.

48. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.

48A. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life.

49. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance.

50. Separation of judiciary from executive.

51. Promotion of international peace and security.

PART IVA

FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES

51A. Fundamental duties.

PART V

THE UNION

CHAPTER I.THE EXECUTIVE

The President and Vice-President

52. The President of India.

53. Executive power of the Union.

54. Election of President.

55. Manner of election of President.

56. Term of office of President.

57. Eligibility for re-election.

58. Qualifications for election as President.

59. Conditions of President‘s office.

60. Oath or affirmation by the President.

61. Procedure for impeachment of the President.

62. Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy.

63. The Vice-President of India.

64. The Vice-President to be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States.

65. The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence, of President.

66. Election of Vice-President.

67. Term of office of Vice-President.

68. Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of Vice-President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy.

69. Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President.

70. Discharge of President‘s functions in other contingencies.

71. Matters relating to, or connected with, the election of a President or Vice-President.

7

ARTICLES

72. Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases.

73. Extent of executive power of the Union.

Council of Ministers

74. Council of Ministers to aid and advise President.

75. Other provisions as to Ministers.

The Attorney-General for India

76. Attorney-General for India.

Conduct of Government Business

77. Conduct of business of the Government of India.

78. Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President, etc.

CHAPTER II.PARLIAMENT

General

79. Constitution of Parliament.

80. Composition of the Council of States.

81. Composition of the House of the People.

82. Readjustment after each census.

83. Duration of Houses of Parliament.

84. Qualification for membership of Parliament.

85. Sessions of Parliament, prorogation and dissolution.

86. Right of President to address and send messages to Houses.

87. Special address by the President.

88. Rights of Ministers and Attorney-General as respects Houses.

Officers of Parliament

89. The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Council of States.

90. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the office of Deputy Chairman.

91. Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Chairman.

92. The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration.

93. The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the People.

94. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker.

95. Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Speaker.

96. The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office

is under consideration.

97. Salaries and allowances of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman and the Speaker and Deputy

Speaker.

98. Secretariat of Parliament.

Conduct of Business

99. Oath or affirmation by members.

100. Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum.

8

ARTICLES

Disqualifications of Members

101. Vacation of seats.

102. Disqualifications for membership.

103. Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members.

104. Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under article 99 or when not

qualified or when disqualified.

Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members

105. Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Parliament and of the members and committees

thereof.

106. Salaries and allowances of members.

Legislative Procedure

107. Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills.

108. Joint sitting of both Houses in certain cases.

109. Special procedure in respect of Money Bills.

110. Definition of ―Money Bills‖.

111. Assent to Bills.

Procedure in Financial Matters

112. Annual financial statement.

113. Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates.

114. Appropriation Bills.

115. Supplementary, additional or excess grants.

116. Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.

117. Special provisions as to financial Bills.

Procedure Generally

118. Rules of procedure.

119. Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial business.

120. Language to be used in Parliament.

121. Restriction on discussion in Parliament.

122. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament.

CHAPTER III.LEGISLATIVE POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT

123. Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament.

CHAPTER IV. THE UNION JUDICIARY

124. Establishment and constitution of Supreme Court.

124A. National Judicial Appointments Commission.

124B. Functions of Commission.

124C. Power of Parliament to make law.

125. Salaries, etc., of Judges.

126. Appointment of acting Chief Justice.

127. Appointment of ad hoc judges.

9

ARTICLES

128. Attendance of retired Judges at sittings of the Supreme Court.

129. Supreme Court to be a court of record.

130. Seat of Supreme Court.

131. Original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.

131A. [Repealed.]

132. Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in certain cases.

133. Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in regard to civil matters.

134. Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in regard to criminal matters.

134A. Certificate for appeal to the Supreme Court.

135. Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Court under existing law to be exercisable by the Supreme Court.

136. Special leave to appeal by the Supreme Court.

137. Review of judgments or orders by the Supreme Court.

138. Enlargement of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.

139. Conferment on the Supreme Court of powers to issue certain writs.

139A. Transfer of certain cases.

140. Ancillary powers of Supreme Court.

141. Law declared by Supreme Court to be binding on all courts.

142. Enforcement of decrees and orders of Supreme Court and orders as to discovery, etc.

143. Power of President to consult Supreme Court.

144. Civil and judicial authorities to act in aid of the Supreme Court.

144A. [Repealed.]

145. Rules of Court, etc.

146. Officers and servants and the expenses of the Supreme Court.

147. Interpretation.

CHAPTER V. COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR-GENERAL OF INDIA

148. Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.

149. Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General.

150. Form of accounts of the Union and of the States.

151. Audit reports.

PART VI

THE STATES

CHAPTER I. GENERAL

152. Definition.

CHAPTER II. THE EXECUTIVE

The Governor

153. Governors of States.

154. Executive power of State.

155. Appointment of Governor.

156. Term of office of Governor.

157. Qualifications for appointment as Governor.

158. Conditions of Governor‘s office.

10

ARTICLES

159. Oath or affirmation by the Governor.

160. Discharge of the functions of the Governor in certain contingencies.

161. Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences

in certain cases.

162. Extent of executive power of State.

Council of Ministers

163. Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor.

164. Other provisions as to Ministers.

The Advocate-General for the State

165. Advocate-General for the State.

Conduct of Government Business

166. Conduct of business of the Government of a State.

167. Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor, etc.

CHAPTER III.THE STATE LEGISLATURE

General

168. Constitution of Legislatures in States.

169. Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in States.

170. Composition of the Legislative Assemblies.

171. Composition of the Legislative Councils.

172. Duration of State Legislatures.

173. Qualification for membership of the State Legislature.

174. Sessions of the State Legislature, prorogation and dissolution.

175. Right of Governor to address and send messages to the House or Houses.

176. Special address by the Governor.

177. Rights of Ministers and Advocate-General as respects the Houses.

Officers of the State Legislature

178. The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly.

179. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker.

180. Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as,

Speaker.

181. The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office

is under consideration.

182. The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council.

183. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Chairman and Deputy Chairman.

184. Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as,

Chairman.

185.The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from

office is under consideration.

11

ARTICLES

186. Salaries and allowances of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker and the Chairman and Deputy

Chairman.

187. Secretariat of State Legislature.

Conduct of Business

188. Oath or affirmation by members.

189. Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum.

Disqualifications of Members

190. Vacation of seats.

191. Disqualifications for membership.

192. Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members.

193. Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under article 188 or when not qualified or when disqualified.

Powers, privileges and immunities of State Legislatures and their Members

194. Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Legislatures and of the members and committees thereof.

195. Salaries and allowances of members.

Legislative Procedure

196. Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills.

197. Restriction on powers of Legislative Council as to Bills other than Money Bills.

198. Special procedure in respect of Money Bills.

199. Definition of ―Money Bills‖.

200. Assent to Bills.

201. Bills reserved for consideration.

Procedure in Financial Matters

202. Annual financial statement.

203. Procedure in Legislature with respect to estimates.

204. Appropriation Bills.

205. Supplementary, additional or excess grants.

206. Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.

207. Special provisions as to financial Bills.

Procedure Generally

208. Rules of procedure.

209. Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in relation to financial business.

210. Language to be used in the Legislature.

211. Restriction on discussion in the Legislature.

212. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of the Legislature.

CHAPTER IV.LEGISLATIVE POWER OF THE GOVERNOR

213. Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature.

CHAPTER V.-THE HIGH COURTS IN THE STATES

214. High Courts for States.

215. High Courts to be courts of record.

216. Constitution of High Courts.

12

ARTICLES 217. Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court.

218. Application of certain provisions relating to Supreme Court to High Courts.

219. Oath or affirmation by Judges of High Courts.

220. Restriction on practice after being a permanent Judge.

221. Salaries, etc., of Judges.

222. Transfer of a Judge from one High Court to another.

223. Appointment of acting Chief Justice.

224. Appointment of additional and acting Judges.

224A. Appointment of retired Judges at sittings of High Courts.

225. Jurisdiction of existing High Courts.

226. Power of High Courts to issue certain writs.

226A. [Repealed.]

227. Power of superintendence over all courts by the High Court.

228. Transfer of certain cases to High Court.

228A. [Repealed.]

229. Officers and servants and the expenses of High Courts.

230. Extension of jurisdiction of High Courts to Union territories.

231. Establishment of a common High Court for two or more States.

CHAPTER VISUBORDINATE COURTS

233. Appointment of district judges.

233A. Validation of appointments of, and judgments, etc., delivered by, certain district judges.

234. Recruitment of persons other than district judges to the judicial service.

235. Control over subordinate courts.

236. Interpretation.

237. Application of the provisions of this Chapter to certain class or classes of magistrates.

PART VII

THE STATES IN PART B OF THE FIRST SCHEDULE

238. [Repealed.]

PART VIII

THE UNION TERRITORIES

239. Administration of Union territories.

239A. Creation of local Legislatures or Council of Ministers or both for certain Union territories.

239AA. Special provisions with respect to Delhi.

239AB. Provision in case of failure of constitutional machinery.

239B. Power of administrator to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature.

240. Power of President to make regulations for certain Union territories.

241. High Courts for Union territories.

242. [Repealed.]

PART IX

THE PANCHAYATS

243. Definitions.

243A. Gram Sabha.

243B. Constitution of Panchayats.

13

ARTICLES

243C. Composition of Panchayats.

243D. Reservation of seats.

243E. Duration of Panchayats, etc.

243F. Disqualifications for membership.

243G. Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats.

243H. Powers to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Panchayats.

243-I. Constitution of Finance Commission to review financial position.

243J. Audit of accounts of Pachayats.

243K. Elections to the Panchayats.

243L. Application to Union territories.

243M. Part not to apply to certain areas.

243N. Continuance of existing laws and Panchayats.

243-O. Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters.

PART IXA

THE MUNICIPALITIES

243P. Definitions.

243Q. Constitution of Municipalities.

243R. Composition of Municipalities.

243S. Constitution and composition of Wards Committees, etc.

243T. Reservation of seats.

243U. Duration of Municipalities, etc.

243V. Disqualifications for membership.

243W. Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities, etc.

243X. Power to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Municipalities.

243Y. Finance Commission.

243Z. Audit of accounts of Municipalities.

243ZA. Elections to the Municipalities.

243ZB. Application to Union territories.

243ZC. Part not to apply to certain areas.

243ZD. Committee for district planning.

243ZE. Committee for Metropolitan planning.

243ZF. Continuance of existing laws and Municipalities.

243ZG. Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters.

PART IXB

THE CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES

243ZH. Definitions.

243Z-I. Incorporation of co-operative societies.

243ZJ. Number and term of members of board and its office bearers.

14

ARTICLES

243ZK. Election of members of board.

243ZL. Supersession and suspension of board and interim management.

243ZM. Audit of accounts of co-operative societies.

243ZN. Convening of general body meetings.

243Z-O. Right of a member to get information.

243ZP. Returns.

243ZQ. Offences and penalties.

243ZR. Application to multi-State co-operative societies.

243ZS. Application to Union territories.

243ZT. Continuance of existing laws.

PART X

THE SCHEDULED AND TRIBAL AREAS

244. Administration of Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas.

244A. Formation of an autonomous State comprising certain tribal areas in Assam and creation of

local Legislature or Council of Ministers or both therefor.

PART XI

RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNION AND THE STATES

CHAPTER I.LEGISLATIVE RELATIONS

Distribution of Legislative Powers

245. Extent of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States.

246. Subject-matter of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States.

247. Power of Parliament to provide for the establishment of certain additional courts.

248. Residuary powers of legislation.

249. Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to a matter in the State List in the national interest.

250. Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to any matter in the State List if a Proclamation of

Emergency is in operation.

251. Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament under articles 249 and 250 and laws made by

the Legislatures of States.

252. Power of Parliament to legislate for two or more States by consent and adoption of such

legislation by any other State.

253. Legislation for giving effect to international agreements.

254. Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament and laws made by the Legislatures of States.

255. Requirements as to recommendations and previous sanctions to be regarded as matters of

procedure only.

CHAPTER II. ADMINISTRATIVE RELATIONS

General

256. Obligation of States and the Union.

257.Control of the Union over States in certain cases.

15

ARTICLES

257A. [Repealed.]

258. Power of the Union to confer powers, etc., on States in certain cases.

258A. Power of the States to entrust functions to the Union.

259. [Repealed.]

260. Jurisdiction of the Union in relation to territories outside India.

261. Public acts, records and judicial proceedings.

Disputes relating to Waters

262. Adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter-State rivers or river valleys.

Co-ordination between States

263. Provisions with respect to an inter-State Council.

PART XII

FINANCE, PROPERTY, CONTRACTS AND SUITS

CHAPTER I.FINANCE

General

264. Interpretation.

265. Taxes not to be imposed save by authority of law.

266. Consolidated Funds and public accounts of India and of the States.

267. Contingency Fund.

Distribution of Revenues between the Union and the States

268. Duties levied by the Union but collected and appropriated by the State.

268A. Service tax levied by Union and collected by the Union and the States.

269. Taxes levied and collected by the Union but assigned to the States.

270. Taxes levied and distributed between the Union and the States.

271. Surcharge on certain duties and taxes for purposes of the Union.

272. [Repealed.]

273. Grants in lieu of export duty on jute and jute products.

274. Prior recommendation of President required to Bills affecting taxation in which States are

interested.

275. Grants from the Union to certain States.

276. Taxes on professions, trades, callings and employments.

277. Savings.

278. [Repealed.]

279. Calculation of ―net proceeds‖, etc.

280. Finance Commission.

281. Recommendations of the Finance Commission.

Miscellaneous financial provisions

282. Expenditure defrayable by the Union or a State out of its revenues.

16

ARTICLES

283. Custody, etc., of Consolidated Funds, Contingency Funds and moneys credited to the public

accounts.

284. Custody of suitors‘ deposits and other moneys received by public servants and courts.

285. Exemption of property of the Union from State taxation.

286. Restrictions as to imposition of tax on the sale or purchase of goods.

287. Exemption from taxes on electricity.

288. Exemption from taxation by States in respect of water or electricity in certain cases.

289. Exemption of property and income of a State from Union taxation.

290. Adjustment in respect of certain expenses and pensions.

290A. Annual payment to certain Devaswom Funds.

291. [Repealed.]

CHAPTER II.BORROWING

292. Borrowing by the Government of India.

293. Borrowing by States.

CHAPTER III. PROPERTY, CONTRACTS, RIGHTS, LIABILITIES,

OBLIGATIONS AND SUITS

294. Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in certain cases.

295. Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in other cases.

296. Property accruing by escheat or laps or as bona vacantia.

297. Things of value within territorial waters or continental shelf and resources of the exclusive economic zone to vest in the Union.

298. Power to carry on trade, etc.

299. Contracts.

300. Suits and proceedings.

CHAPTER IV. RIGHT TO PROPERTY

300A. Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law.

PART XIII

TRADE, COMMERCE AND INTERCOURSE WITHIN THE

TERRITORY OF INDIA

301. Freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse.

302. Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse.

303. Restrictions on the legislative powers of the Union and of the States with regard to trade and commerce.

304. Restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse among States.

305. Saving of existing laws and laws providing for State monopolies.

306. [Repealed.]

307. Appointment of authority for carrying out the purposes of articles 301 to 304.

PART XIV

SERVICES UNDER THE UNION AND THE STATES

CHAPTER I. SERVICES

308. Interpretation.

309. Recruitment and conditions of service of persons serving the Union or a State.

310. Tenure of office of persons serving the Union or a State.

311. Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in civil capacities under the Union or a State.

312. All-India services.

17

ARTICLES

312A. Power of Parliament to vary or revoke conditions of service of officers of certain services.

313. Transitional provisions.

314. [Repealed.]

CHAPTER II.—PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSIONS

315. Public Service Commissions for the Union and for the States.

316. Appointment and term of office of members.

317. Removal and suspension of a member of a Public Service Commission.

318. Power to make regulations as to conditions of service of members and staff of the Commission.

319. Prohibition as to the holding of offices by members of Commission on ceasing to be such members.

320. Functions of Public Service Commissions.

321. Power to extend functions of Public Service Commissions.

322. Expenses of Public Service Commissions.

323. Reports of Public Service Commissions.

PART XIVA

TRIBUNALS

323A. Administrative tribunals.

323B. Tribunals for other matters.

PART XV

ELECTIONS

324. Superintendence, direction and control of elections to be vested in an Election Commission.

325. No person to be ineligible for inclusion in, or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll

on grounds of religion, race, caste or sex.

326. Elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assemblies of States to be on the

basis of adult suffrage.

327. Power of Parliament to make provision with respect to elections to Legislatures.

328. Power of Legislature of a State to make provision with respect to elections to such Legislature.

329. Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters.

329A. [Repealed.]

PART XVI

SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO CERTAIN CLASSES

330. Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the House of the People.

331. Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the House of the People.

332. Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Legislative Assemblies of

the States.

333. Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the Legislative Assemblies of the States.

334. Reservation of seats and special representation to cease after seventy years.

335. Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to services and posts.

336. Special provision for Anglo-Indian community in certain services.

18

ARTICLES

337. Special provision with respect to educational grants for the benefit of Anglo-Indian Community.

338. National Commission for Scheduled Castes.

338A. National Commission for Scheduled Tribes.

339. Control of the Union over the administration of Scheduled Areas and the welfare of Scheduled

Tribes.

340. Appointment of a Commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes.

341. Scheduled Castes.

342. Scheduled Tribes.

PART XVII

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE

CHAPTER I.—LANGUAGE OF THE UNION

343. Official language of the Union.

344. Commission and Committee of Parliament on official language.

CHAPTER II. REGIONAL LANGUAGES

345. Official language or languages of a State.

346. Official language for communication between one State and another or between a State and the

Union.

347. Special provision relating to language spoken by a section of the population of a State.

CHAPTER III.LANGUAGE OF THE SUPREME COURT,

HIGH COURTS, ETC.

348. Language to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts and for Acts, Bills, etc.

349. Special procedure for enactment of certain laws relating to language.

CHAPTER IV.SPECIAL DIRECTIVES

350. Language to be used in representations for redress of grievances.

350A. Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage.

350B. Special Officer for linguistic minorities.

351.Directive for development of the Hindi language. PART XVIII

EMERGENCY PROVISIONS

352. Proclamation of Emergency.

353. Effect of Proclamation of Emergency.

354. Application of provisions relating to distribution of revenues while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation.

355. Duty of the Union to protect States against external aggression and internal disturbance.

356. Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States.

357. Exercise of legislative powers under Proclamation issued under article 356.

358. Suspension of provisions of article 19 during emergencies.

359. Suspension of the enforcement of the rights conferred by Part III during emergencies.

359A. [Repealed.]

360.Provisions as to financial emergency.

19

PART XIX

MISCELLANEOUS

ARTICLES

361. Protection of President and Governors and Rajpramukhs.

361A. Protection of publication of proceedings of Parliament and State Legislatures.

361B. Disqualification for appointment on remunerative political post.

362. [Repealed.]

363. Bar to interference by courts in disputes arising out of certain treaties, agreements, etc.

363A. Recognition granted to Rulers of Indian States to cease and privy purses to be abolished.

364. Special provisions as to major ports and aerodromes.

365. Effect of failure to comply with, or to give effect to, directions given by the Union.

366. Definitions.

367. Interpretation.

PART XX

AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION

368. Power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure therefor.

PART XXI

TEMPORARY, TRANSITIONAL AND SPECIAL PROVISIONS

369. Temporary power to Parliament to make laws with respect to certain matters in the State List as if they were matters in the Concurrent List.

370. Temporary provisions with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir.

371. Special provision with respect to the States of Maharashtra and Gujarat.

371A. Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland.

371B.Special provision with respect to the State of Assam.

371C.Special provision with respect to the State of Manipur.

371D.Special provisions with respect to the State of Andhra Pradesh or the State of Telangana

371E.Establishment of Central University in Andhra Pradesh.

371F.Special provisions with respect to the State of Sikkim.

371G.Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram.

371H.Special provision with respect to the State of Arunachal Pradesh.

371-I.Special provision with respect to the State of Goa.

371J.Special provisions with respect to the State of Karnataka.

372.Continuance in force of existing laws and their adaptation.

372A.Power of the President to adapt laws.

373.Power of President to make order in respect of persons under preventive detention in certain cases.

374.Provisions as to Judges of the Federal Court and proceedings pending in the Federal Court or before His Majesty in Council.

375.Courts, authorities and officers to continue to function subject to the provisions of the Constitution.

376.Provisions as to Judges of High Courts.

377.Provisions as to Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.

378.Provisions as to Public Service Commissions.

378A.Special provision as to duration of Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly.

379-391. [Repealed.]

392.Power of the President to remove difficulties.

20

PART XXII

SHORT TITLE, COMMENCEMENT, AUTHORITATIVE TEXT

IN HINDI AND REPEALS

ARTICLES

393. Short title.

394. Commencement.

394A. Authoritative text in the Hindi language.

395. Repeals.

THE SCHEDULES.

FIRST SCHEDULE

I. —The States.

II. —The Union territories.

SECOND SCHEDULE

PART AProvisions as to the President and the Governors of States.

PART B— [Repealed.]

PART C—Provisions as to the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of the People and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Council of States and the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council of a State.

PART D—Provisions as to the Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts.

PART E— Provisions as to the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.

THIRD SCHEDULE—Forms of Oaths or Affirmations.

FOURTH SCHEDULE—Allocation of seats in the Council of States.

FIFTH SCHEDULE—Provisions as to the Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes

PART A—General.

PART B—Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes.

PART C— Scheduled Areas.

PART D—Amendment of the Schedule.

SIXTH SCHEDULE—Provisions as to the Administration of Tribal Areas in the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.

SEVENTH SCHEDULE—

List I — Union List.

List II— State List.

List III— Concurrent List.

EIGHTH SCHEDULE—Languages.

NINTH SCHEDULE—Validation of certain Acts and Regulations.

TENTH SCHEDULE—Provisions as to disqualification on ground of defection.

ELEVENTH SCHEDULE—Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats.

TWELFTH SCHEDULE—Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities, etc.

21

APPENDIX I—The Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954.

APPENDIX II—Re-statement, with reference to the present text of the Constitution, of the

exceptions and modifications subject to which the Constitution applies to the State of Jammu

and Kashmir.

APPENDIX III—Extracts from the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978

APPENDIX IV—The Constitution (Eighty-eighth Amendment) Act, 2003.

APPENDIX V—The Constitution (One Hundredth Amendment) Act, 2015.

22

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PREAMBLE

WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN

SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:

JUSTICE, social, economic and political;

LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;

EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;

and to promote among them all

FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;

IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY

ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.

23

PART I

THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY

1. Name and territory of the Union.—(1) India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States.

(2) The States and the territories thereof shall be as specified in the First Schedule.

(3) The territory of India shall comprise—

(a) the territories of the States;

(b) the Union territories specified in the First Schedule; and

(c) such other territories as may be acquired.

2. Admission or establishment of new States.—Parliament may by law admit into the Union, or

establish, new States on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit.

2A. [Sikkim to be associated with the Union.] Rep. by the Constitution (Thirty-sixth Amendment) Act,

1975, s. 5 (w.e.f. 26-4-1975).

3. Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States.

Parliament may by law—

(a) form a new State by separation of territory from any State or by uniting two or more States or

parts of States or by uniting any territory to a part of any State;

(b) increase the area of any State;

(c) diminish the area of any State;

(d) alter the boundaries of any State;

(e) alter the name of any State:

Provided that no Bill for the purpose shall be introduced in either House of Parliament except on the

recommendation of the President and unless, where the proposal contained in the Bill affects the area,

boundaries or name of any of the States, the Bill has been referred by the President to the Legislature of

that State for expressing its views thereon within such period as may be specified in the reference or

within such further period as the President may allow and the period so specified or allowed has expired.

Explanation I.—In this article, in clauses (a) to (e), ―State‖ includes a Union territory, but in the

proviso, ―State‖ does not include a Union territory.

Explanation II.—The power conferred on Parliament by clause (a) includes the power to form a new

State or Union territory by uniting a part of any State or Union territory to any other State or Union

territory.

4. Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth

Schedules and supplemental, incidental and consequential matters.—(1) Any law referred to in

article 2 or article 3 shall contain such provisions for the amendment of the First Schedule and the Fourth

Schedule as may be necessary to give effect to the provisions of the law and may also contain such

supplemental, incidental and consequential provisions (including provisions as to representation in

Parliament and in the Legislature or Legislatures of the State or States affected by such law) as Parliament

may deem necessary.

(2) No such law as aforesaid shall be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the

purposes of article 368.

24

PART II

CITIZENSHIP

5. Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution.—At the commencement of this

Constitution, every person who has his domicile in the territory of India and—

(a) who was born in the territory of India; or

(b) either of whose parents was born in the territory of India; or

(c) who has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India for not less than five years

immediately preceding such commencement,

shall be a citizen of India.

6. Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan.—

Notwithstanding anything in article 5, a person who has migrated to the territory of India from the

territory now included in Pakistan shall be deemed to be a citizen of India at the commencement of this

Constitution if—

(a) he or either of his parents or any of his grand-parents was born in India as defined in the

Government of India Act, 1935 (as originally enacted); and

(b) (i) in the case where such person has so migrated before the nineteenth day of July, 1948, he

has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India since the date of his migration, or

(ii) in the case where such person has so migrated on or after the nineteenth day of July, 1948, he

has been registered as a citizen of India by an officer appointed in that behalf by the Government of

the Dominion of India on an application made by him therefor to such officer before the

commencement of this Constitution in the form and manner prescribed by that Government:

Provided that no person shall be so registered unless he has been resident in the territory of India

for at least six months immediately preceding the date of his application.

7. Rights of citizeship of certain migrants to Pakistan.—Notwithstanding anything in articles 5

and 6, a person who has after the first day of March, 1947, migrated from the territory of India to the

territory now included in Pakistan shall not be deemed to be a citizen of India:

Provided that nothing in this article shall apply to a person who, after having so migrated to the

territory now included in Pakistan, has returned to the territory of India under a permit for resettlement or

permanent return issued by or under the authority of any law and every such person shall for the purposes

of clause (b) of article 6 be deemed to have migrated to the territory of India after the nineteenth day of

July, 1948.

8. Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside India.

Notwithstanding anything in article 5, any person who or either of whose parents or any of whose grand-

parents was born in India as defined in the Government of India Act, 1935 (as originally enacted), and

who is ordinarily residing in any country outside India as so defined shall be deemed to be a citizen of

India if he has been registered as a citizen of India by the diplomatic or consular representative of India in

the country where he is for the time being residing on an application made by him therefor to such

diplomatic or consular representative, whether before or after the commencement of this Constitution, in

the form and manner prescribed by the Government of the Dominion of India or the Government of India.

9. Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to be citizens.— No person

shall be a citizen of India by virtue of article 5, or be deemed to be a citizen of India by virtue of article 6

or article 8, if he has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of any foreign State.

10. Continuance of the rights of citizenship.—Every person who is or is deemed to be a citizen of

India under any of the foregoing provisions of this Part shall, subject to the provisions of any law that

may be made by Parliament, continue to be such citizen.

11. Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.—Nothing in the foregoing provisions of

this Part shall derogate from the power of Parliament to make any provision with respect to the

acquisition and termination of citizenship and all other matters relating to citizenship.

25

PART III

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

General

12. Definition.—In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires, ―the State‖ includes the

Government and Parliament of India and the Government and the Legislature of each of the States and all

local or other authorities within the territory of India or under the control of the Government of India.

13.Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.—(1) All laws in force in

the territory of India immediately before the commencement of this Constitution, in so far as they are

inconsistent with the provisions of this Part, shall, to the extent of such inconsistency, be void.

(2) The State shall not make any law which takes away or abridges the rights conferred by this Part

and any law made in contravention of this clause shall, to the extent of the contravention, be void.

(3) In this article, unless the context otherwise requires,—

(a) ―law‖ includes any Ordinance, order, bye-law, rule, regulation, notification, custom or usage

having in the territory of India the force of law;

(b) ―laws in force‖ includes laws passed or made by a Legislature or other competent authority in

the territory of India before the commencement of this Constitution and not previously repealed,

notwithstanding that any such law or any part thereof may not be then in operation either at all or in

particular areas.

(4) Nothing in this article shall apply to any amendment of this Constitution made under article 368.

Right to Equality

14. Equality before law.—The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal

protection of the laws within the territory of India.

15. Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.—(1)

The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of

birth or any of them.

(2) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them, be

subject to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to—

(a) access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and places of public entertainment; or

(b) the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly or

partly out of State funds or dedicated to the use of the general public.

(3) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for women and

children.

(4) Nothing in this article or in clause (2) of article 29 shall prevent the State from making any special

provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the

Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.

(5) Nothing in this article or in sub-clause (g) of clause (1) of article 19 shall prevent the State from

making any special provision, by law, for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward

classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes or the Scheduled Tribes in so far as such special provisions

relate to their admission to educational institutions including private educational institutions, whether

aided or unaided by the State, other than the minority educational institutions referred to in clause (1) of

article 30.

16. Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.—(1) There shall be equality of

opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the

State.

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